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Zo]p Fkv \mb tImhfw

Story Dated: 2016-01-10

F³sd lrZbcàw sImïmWv Rm³ H¸phbv¡póXv FómWv hnimJw Xncp\mÄ amÀ¯mÞhÀa hyk\t¯msS Cu DS¼Snbnð H¸psh¡póXn\p ap³]v Cu Icmdns\ hntijn¸n¨Xv {]nb kplr¯pIsf At±lw ]dª hm¡pIfpsS AÀ°w \½fnóv Adnbpóp.

temI¯nð Cóv \nehnepÅ Dbcw IqSnb `qKpcpXz AWs¡«pIfnð Gähpw ]g¡w sNóXmWnXv. \nÀ½mWImeL«¯nð temI¯nse Gähpw henb AWs¡«mbncpóp apñs¸cnbmÀ. kpÀ¡n an{inXw D]tbmKn¨p \nÀ½n¨ AWs¡«pIfnð temI¯v \nehnepÅ GI AWs¡«v Fó {]tXyIX CXn\pïv. Cóv C´ybnse Gähpw ]g¡apÅ AWs¡«pIfnð HómWv apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v. tIcf¯nð Xsó DÛhn¨v Ahkm\n¡pó hrãn{]tZiamWv AWs¡«n\pÅXv. AkvXnhmc¯nð \nópw GXmïv 53.6aoädmWv (176 ASn) AWs¡«nsâ Dbcw. \ofw 365.7 aoädpw (1200 ASn).

AWs¡«v \ne\nð¡póXv tIcf¯nsâ Øe¯msW¦nepw, AXnsâ \nb{´Ww Xangv-\mSnsâ ssIhiamWv. Hcp AWs¡«nsâ Imemh[n Adp]Xp hÀjamsWóncnt¡ \qdp hÀj¯n\p apIfnð ]g¡apÅ apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v AXnsâ {]m´{]tZi§fnepÅhÀ¡pw, tIcf¯nse Aôp Pnñbnse P\§fpsS Poh\pw kz¯n\pw `ojWnbmsWó hmZw tIcfapbÀ¯póp. imkv{Xob ]T\§Ä Nqïn¡mWn¨v tIcf¯nsâ hmZ§Ä¡v Ig¼nsñóv Xangv-\mSpw hmZn¡póp. s]cnbmÀ ]m«¡cmÀ C´y kzX{´bmhpóXn\p ap¼v \nehnð hóXmsWópw, C´y {_n«ojpImcnð \nópw kzmX{´yw t\Snbt¸mÄ {_n«ojpImcpw, C´ybnse \m«pcmPy§fpw X½nð \ne\nóncpó Fñm DS¼SnIfpw, IcmdpIfpw kzbtah d±mbn Fóv tIcfw kp{]owtImSXnbnð hmZn¨ncpóp. ]t£ AsXmópw ^ew Iïnñ.

AWs¡«v hó hgn; ]cnKWn¡m¯ Bhiyw

apñbmdpw s]cnbmdpw H¯ptNÀóv cq]s¸«v, ]nóoSv 's]cnbmÀ' Fó t]cnð HgpIn Ad_n¡Sense¯nt¨cpó shÅw XSªp\nÀ¯m\pÅ bXv-\§sfmópw ]gb XncphnXmwIqÀ kÀ¡mdnsâ `mK¯p\nópïmbnñ. Irjn¡msc klmbn¡m\mbn XncphnXmwIqdnse s]cnbmäneqsS ]mgmbnt¸mIpó shÅw XSªp\nÀ¯n a{Zmkv {]tZit¯¡v Hgp¡msaó Bibw B {]hniybnse `cWIÀ¯m¡Ä¡v Dïmbn, XncphnXmwIqÀ AXnt\mSv tbmPn¨p.

XncphnXmwIqdnsâ D]m[nIÄ

1. XncphnXmwIqÀ \ðIpó `qan¡v \ã]cnlmcambn sdm¡w Ggp e£w cq] \ðIpI.

2. {_n«sâ t\cn«pÅ `cW¯nembncpó AôpsX§v, X¦tÈcn Fóo {]tZi§fpw tNÀ¯e Xmeq¡nse kÀ¡mÀ ]m«w \ne§Ä Fódnbs¸«ncpó 51 G¡À Øehpw XncphnXmwIqdn\v hn«psImSp¡pI.

3. 8000 G¡dnð IqSpXð `qan AWs¡«n\v thïn D]tbmKnt¡ïn hómð Hmtcm G¡dn\pw 50 cq] ]m«ambn IqSpXð \ðIpI.

4. Bhiysa¦nð a{Zmkv {]hniybnse IÀjIÀ¡v shÅw \ðIpó CtX hyhØIfntòð XncphnXmwIqdnse IÀjIÀ¡pw shÅw \ðIpI.

D]m[nIfntòð NÀ¨ \Sóp. AôpsX§pw X¦tÈcnbpw tNÀ¯ebnse ]m«w \ne§fpw hn«psImSp¡m\mhnsñóv {_n«ojv kÀ¡mÀ BZyta Xsó ]dªp. aäv hyhØIÄ t`ZKXnItfmsS AwKoIcn¨p.

1886 HtÎm_À 29\v {_n«ojv kÀ¡mdpw XncphnXmwIqdpw apñs¸cnbmÀ ]m«¡cmdnð H¸psh¨p. XncphnXmwIqÀ almcmPmhn\p thïn Znhm³ cma¿¦mdpw C´ym Imcy§Ä¡mbpÅ sk{I«dn Hm^v kvtään\p thïn dknUâv lmónMvSWpamWv. XncphnXmwIqÀ acma¯v-hIp¸v sk{I«dn sI.sI. Ipcphnfbpw BÎnMv slUv kÀ¡mÀ h¡oð sF.F¨v. {]n³kpw km£nIfmbn H¸n«p.

(XncphnXmwIqÀ `cWm[nImcn hnimJw Xncp\mÄ cmahÀ½ (1881 - 1885) Cu Icmdnð GÀs¸Sm³ BZyw At±lw kó²\mbncpónñ. Fsâ lrZbcàwsImïmWv Rm³ H¸phbv¡póXv FómWv hnimJw Xncp\mÄ cmahÀ½ hyk\t¯msS Cu Icmdns\ hntijn¸n¨Xv. ]nóoSv {_n«ojv A[nImcnIÄ \b]camb _e{]tbmK¯neqsS XncphnXmwIqdns\ 1886-ð DS¼Snbnð H¸psh¸n¡pIbmbncpóp.)

AwKoIcn¡s¸« hyhØIÄ

1.{]XnhÀjw 40,000 cq] \ã]cnlmcambn XncphnXmwIqdn\v \ðIpw. AXv XncphnXmwIqÀ hÀjwtXmdpw {_n«ojv kÀ¡mdn\v sImSp¡pó XpIbnð \nóv Ipdhv sN¿pw.

2.8000 G¡dnð IqSpXð `qan AWs¡«n\v thïn D]tbmKnt¡ïnhómð Hmtcm G¡dn\pw Aôp cq] ]m«ambn IqSpXð \ðIpw.

3.AWs¡«v \nÀamW¯n\mhiyamb acw, Iñv, a®v, apf XpS§nbh {]Xn^esamópw \ðImsX XncphnXmwIqÀ {]tZi¯v \nsóSp¡m³ ]m«¡mc\v AhImiapïmIpw
.
4.Icmdnsâ Imemh[n 999 sImñambncn¡pw.

5.IcmÀ \S¸m¡póXn\nSbnð DbÀtó¡mhpó XÀ¡§Ä cïv kÀ¡mdpIfpw \nÝbn¡pó a[yØòmcpsStbm Asñ¦nð AhÀ \nÝbn¡pó A¼bdpsStbm A´naXocpam\¯n\v hnSpw.

Umansâ \nÀ½mWw

]Snªmdv Ad_n¡Sente¡v HgpInbncpó s]cnbmdnse shÅw Hcp AWsI«n ITn\ hcĨ A\p`hn¨psImïncn¡pó {]tZi§fmb a[pc, cma\mY]pcw, UnïnKð, I¼w, tX\n apXemb Øe§Ä¡v shÅw e`yam¡mw FóXmbncpóp apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ {][m\ \nÀ½mW Dt±iw. Cu {]tZit¯¡v shÅw F¯n¨psImïncpóXv sshK \ZnbneqsS Bbncpóp. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v \S¸nð hómð sshK \Znbnð IqsS e`yamIpó Pet¯¡mÄ IqSpXð apñs¸cnbmdnð \nóp In«pw FóXmbncpóp {][m\ BIÀjWw.


kap{Z\nc¸nð \nóv 5000 ASn Dbc¯nemWv apñs¸cnbmÀ ØnXn sN¿póXv. AWs¡«n\v 1200 ASn \ofhpw 155 ASn Dbchpw. Cu s^{_hcnbnð Umw \nÀan¨n«v 116 hÀjw ]qÀ¯nbmbn. Aós¯ \nÀ½mW kma{KnIfpw Adnhpw kmt¦XnI hnZybpamWv Umw \nÀamW¯n\v D]tbmKn¨Xv. Ct¸mgs¯ AWs¡«n\v GI`mhanñ. ]e Ime¯v ]eXcw hkvXp¡Ä sImïpÅ tNÀ¸mbn AXv amdnbncn¡póp. Cós¯ AWs¡«pIÄ¡v sImSp¡pót]mse 'FIv-kv]m³j³ tPmbâp'Isfmópw apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\nñ. apgph³ Hä t»m¡mWv. AWs¡«nsâ apónð, Pemibs¯ sXm«ncn¡pó `mK¯v kpÀ¡nbpw Np®m¼pw tNÀ¯pïm¡nb Nm´v D]tbmKn¨pÅ d_nÄ tak¬dn, (A¡me¯v \nÀamWtaJebnð knaâv {]Nmc¯nembncpónñ.)

AXn\v sXm«p]nónð Np®m¼pw kpÀ¡nbpw Iñpw tNÀ¯pÅ tIm¬{Ioäv, ]nónð hoïpw kpÀ¡nbpw Np®m¼pw tNÀ¯pïm¡nb Nm´v D]tbmKn¨pÅ d_nÄ tak¬dn, AXn\ptijw {Ku«v sNbvXv ASbv¡m¯ t\cnb hnShv, Gähpw HSphnð ]gb AWs¡«nsâ ]n³`mK¯v ]pXnb tIm¬{Ioäv Fón§s\bmWv Ct¸mgs¯ AhØ.
shÅw \nd¨ BZyZnhk§fnð Xsó AWs¡«nsâ ]n³`mK¯v \\hpw Dudepw IïpXpS§nsbóv tcJIÄ ]dbpóp. Cu Dudð Pe¯neqsS {]XnhÀjw icmicn 30 S¬ Np®m¼v \ãs¸«psImïncn¡pópshóv ]dªXv Xangv-\mSv Xsó.

tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v

apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ D]RvPmXmhpw, krãnIÀ¯mhpambn Adnbs¸Spó Cw¥ojpImc\mWv tPm¬ s]\n Iyq¡v. 1858 ð tdmbð anen«dn Fôn\obdnwKv tImtfPnð \nópw {_n«ojv tdmbð Fôn\obÀ Fó _ncpZw IcØam¡nb Bfmbncpóp tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v. tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡pw taPÀ ssdhpw IqSn hfsc¡mew {ian¨v apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\p thïn Hcp ]²Xn X¿mdm¡n. Aós¯ IW¡\pkcn¨v 62 e£w C´y³ cq] sNehp hcpó ]²Xnbmbncpóp Ccphcpw IqSn X¿mdm¡nbXv. 1887 ð AWs¡«nsâ inemØm]\ IÀ½w \nÀÆln¡pIbpw DS³ Xsó \nÀ½mWw Bcw`n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. ]t£ I\¯ agbpw shÅs¸m¡hpw \nÀ½mWs¯ CSXShnñmsX XSÊs¸Sp¯n. sI«ns¸m¡nb `mKw shŸm¨nenð \in¨pt]mbn. tPmen¡mÀ lnwk arK§Ä¡ncbmbn.

CtXmsS Cu \nÀ½mWw XpStcïXnsñóv kÀ¡mÀ Xocpam\n¨p. \ncmi\mb tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v IpSpw_ktaXw Cw¥ïnte¡p t]mbn. Fómð Cu AWs¡«v Xm³ Hä¡p Xsó \nÀ½mWw ]qÀ¯nbm¡psaóv At±lw {]XnÚsbSp¯ncpóp. Cw¥ïnse¯nb At±lhpw `mcy t{Kkv tPmÀÖo\bpw AhnsSbpÅ X§fpsS k¼mZyw apgph³ hnäp ]Wam¡nbtijw C´ybnte¡p Xncn¨phcnIbpw, Hcp th\ð¡me¯nsâ Bcw`¯nð \nÀ½mWw XpS§pIbpw sNbvXp. sXm«p]nómse hó ag¡mew B ASn¯dsb XIÀ¯nñ, s]\nIyq¡nsâ ZrV \nÝb¯n\p kÀ¡mcpw Dd¨ ]n´pW \ðIn. 1895 ð AWs¡«nsâ \nÀ½mWw ]qÀ¯nbmbn. 81.30 e£w cq] BsI Nnehmbn.

XÀ¡w XpS§nbsX§s\


1961 se shÅs¸m¡t¯mSpIqSnbmWv bYmÀ°¯nð Cu AWs¡«nsâ kpc£sbs¨mñnbpÅ hmZ§fpw FXnÀhmZ§fpw DbÀóp hóXv. C´y kzX{´bmbXn\ptijhpw AXn\pap¼pÅ IcmÀ D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSv ChnSps¯ Pew tIcfhpambpÅ Hcp kahmb¯n\p ]pd¯v sImïpt]mbns¡mïncpóp. ]nóoSv Xangv-\mSv Cu Pe¯nð sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡m\pw XpS§n. 1976ð kn. ANypXtat\m³ apJya{´nbmbncpó Ime¯v 1886se Icmdns\ bmsXmcp D]m[nIfpw IqSmsX ]pXp¡n. 1970 se Cu ]pXp¡nb Icmdnð apñs¸cnbmdnse Pew D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSn\v sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡m³ k½Xw sImSp¯psImïpÅ hyhØ tNÀ¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

IqSmsX ]²Xn {]tZi¯v Hcp ]pXnb sshZypX\nebw \nÀ½n¡m\pw ]pXnb Icmdnð hyhØbpïmbncpóp. apñs¸cnbmdnse Pew D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSv DXv]mZn¸n¡pó sshZypXnbnð \nópw tIcf¯n\p In«pó hnlnXw shdpw \maam{Xamb XpIbmbncpóp.
1979ð KpPdm¯nð kw`hn¨ a¨p AWs¡«nsâ XIÀ¨sb¯pSÀópïmb hmÀ¯IfpsS ]Ým¯e¯nð apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ kao] {]tZi§fnse P\§Ä ]cn{`m´nbnembn. XpSÀóv tI{µ `ua imkv{X]T\ tI{µw \S¯nb ]T\w AWs¡«n\v dnÎÀ kv-sIbnenð Bdv hcpó `qI¼s¯ Xm§m³ Ignbnsñóp dnt¸mÀ«p \ðIn.

XpSÀóv A¡mes¯ Pe\nc¸mb 142.2 ASn Fó Pe\nc¸nð \nópw Xangv-\mSv Pe\nc¸v 136 ASnbmbn Ipd¨p. P\§fnepïmb ]cn{`m´n 1976ð Dïm¡nb Icmdnð \nópw ]ntóm«pt]mIphm³ tIcfs¯ t{]cn¸n¨p. CXp Xangv-\mSv XpSÀ¨bmbn tNmZyw sN¿pIbpw, IqSpXð Pew Bhiys¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. XpSÀóv tIcfw P\§fpsS kpc£bv¡p ]pdta s]cnbmÀ h\yPohn kt¦X¯nepïmIpó ssPh\ãsaó ]cnØnXn {]iv-\w IqSn apñs¸cnbmÀ {]iv-\¯nð DÄs¸Sp¯n.

kpc£m{]iv-\§Ä

1. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\v 116 hÀjs¯ ]g¡apïv. Hcp AWs¡«nsâ Imemh[n 60hÀjamWv. thï{X ap³IcpXð FSp¯mepw Hcp Zpc´s¯ AXnPohn¡m³ Cu AWs¡«n\v Ignbnñ.
2. \nÀ½mW¯n\v D]tbmKn¨ncn¡pó an{inX§Ä Ime¸g¡s¯ AXnPohn¡nñ. Gsd `mKw HgpInt¸mbn.
3. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v \nð¡póXv `qI¼ {`witaJebnemWv.
4. AWs¡«v ]cn]men¡póXnð hó hogvNIÄ.
5 AWs¡«nsâ BsI Dbct¯¡mÄ IqSpXð shÅw s]m§nbmð apIfneqsS hcpó shÅw AWs¡«nsâ Xmsg ]Xn¡pIbpw B k½À±¯nð AWs¡«nsâ ASn¯d CfIpIbpw sN¿pw. CXpIqSmsX AWs¡«nsâ ASn`mKw CfInadnbpItbm \nc§namdpItbm sN¿mw. s]s«ópïmb {]fb Pe¯nð a[y{]tZinse Sn{K AWs¡«v C{]Imcw BWv \new]Xn¨Xv.

Xangv-\mSv shÅw sImïpt]mIpó hgn

tX¡Sn t_m«v em³Un§n\Sp¯p\nóv XSmI¯nsâ AcnInð¡qSn 5342 ASn \ofhpw 21 ASn, ASn¯«v hoXnbpapÅ I\meneqsS shÅw Ipafn SuWn\Sp¯v F¯n¡póp. tX¡Sn ]mÀ¡nsâ {]thi\ `mK¯mWnXv. h\whIp¸nsâ sN¡v-t]mÌn\Sp¯v. AhnsS \nóv aeXpcóv, I¼wtX\n tdmUn\Snbnð¡qSn 5887 ASn \ofapÅ SWeneqsS ]ÝnaL«¯nsâ A¸pds¯¯n¡póp. AhnsS 3.2 Zie£w L\bSn am{Xw tijnbpÅ UmanemWv shÅsa¯pI.


Cu Umanð \nóv sk¡³Unð 1600 L\bSn shÅw sImïpt]mIm³ tijnbpÅ, 3992 ASn \ofw hcpó ]hÀ SWeneqsS aebpsS asämcp `mKs¯¯n¡póp. AhnsS \nóv sk¡³Unð 400 L\bSn hoXw shÅw {]hln¸n¡m³ Ignbpó \mev s]³kvtäm¡v ss]¸neqsS temhÀIym¼v sshZypX \neb¯nemWv shÅsa¯n¡pI. Cu shÅap]tbmKn¨v ChnsS 140 saKmhm«v sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡póp. AXn\ptijw Cu shÅw hssch\mdneqsS sshssK AWs¡«nð F¯nt¨cpóp. sshssK AWs¡«nsâ XmsgbmWv Cu shÅw D]tbmKn¨v PetkN\w sN¿pó {][m\ AWs¡«v. sshssKbnð F¯póXn\pap¼v ]Xn\mbnc¯ne[nIw G¡À Øe¯v Cu shÅw D]tbmKn¨v Irjn sN¿pópïv.

Umw XIÀómð

apñs¸cnbmÀ Umw HómsI XIcpIbmsW¦nð 50 ASn Dbc¯nemWv shÅw CSp¡n Umante¡v shÅw IpXns¨¯m³ km[yX. Cu `mK¯pÅ hÅ¡Shv, hïns¸cnbmÀ, amae, N¸m¯v, D¸pXd, A¿¸³Ihnð {]tZi§fnse 70,000 t]cpsS Poh\mWv CXpaqew A]IS¯nemIpI. Chcnð 30,000 t]cpw Xangv hwiPcmsWóXv asämcp {]tXyIXbmWv. s]s«ópÅ BLmX¯nð CSp¡n Umw XIÀómð XmsgbpÅ 11 AWs¡«pIfpw XIcmw. ^e¯nð CSp¡n, FdWmIpfw, tIm«bw, Be¸pg PnñIfnse P\§sfbmsI _m[n¡póXnte¡mWv C¯csamcp Zpc´km[yX hncðNqïpóXv. apñs¸cnbmÀ Umans\m¸w CSp¡n Umansâ IqSn XIÀ¨ tIcfs¯ cïmbn hn`Pn¡póXn\v CSbm¡psaómWv apñs¸cnbmÀ Umansâ _e£bw ]Tn¡m³ kp{]ow tImSXn \ntbmKn¨ sk³{Sð tkmbnð B³Uv saäocnbð dntkÀNv kvtäj³ Sow \ðInb clky dnt¸mÀ«nð ]dbpóXv.

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