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Adnbmh Adnbs ...amXmlmcn

Hómw temIalmbp²Ime¯v Cc«¨mchr¯n Btcm]n¡s¸«v h[in£bv¡v Ccbmb lnµphmb C³Uy³ \À¯Insbóv kzbw AhImis¸« amXmlmcn Fó aÀKco¯ KoÀ{SqbnUm sksñbpsS PohnXw AXy´w kmlknIX \ndªXpw A´yw XnI¨pw ZmcpWhpambncpóp. bp²Ime¯v i{Xphnsâ X{´{][m\ \o¡§Ä kv{XoXzhpw hiyXbpw X{´§fpw D]tbmKn¨v tNmÀ¯n FSp¯ncpó hnZKv[Ifmb Nmch\nXIÄs¡ñmw Fópw {]tNmZ\ambn«pÅ t]cmWv amXmlmcn.Htckabw, s{^ôpImÀ¡pw PÀ½\n¡pw thïnbpw Nmchr¯n \S¯nbncpópshóv Btcm]n¡s¸«v sIme sN¿s¸« amXlmcn A³]Xn\mbncw ]«mf¡mcpsS acW¯n\v CSbm¡n FóXmbncpóp tIkv. AhcpsS hnNmcW sI«n¨a¨ sXfnhpIsf B{ibn¨mbncpsóópw Cópw hmZapïv.. amX lmcnbpsS PohnX¯neqsS.... s\YÀem³Uvknð {^okv-em³Unse ]«Wamb eobphmÀU\nse Hcp I¨hS¡mc\mbncpó BUw skñ¡v 1876 BKÌv 7\v Hcp ]p{Xn P\n¨p. AbmÄ AhÄ¡v amÀKco¯ KnÀ{SoU Fóv \maIcWw sNbvXp. ]Xn\mephbkmbt¸mÄ Ahsf Hcp tIm¬-shânð KmÀlnI IeIÄ A`ykn¸n¡m³ ]dªb¨p. U¨p kaql¯nse a[yhÀ¤ Npäp]mSnð Pohn¡pó Hcp s]¬Ip«nbpsS \ntbmKw AXmbncpóp. Fómð C¯csamcp bmYmØnXnIX¡v hg§pó kz`mh¡mcn Bbncpónñ KnÀ{SoU. ]s¯m³]Xmw hbknð bmYmØnXnIXbpsS thens¡«pIÄ `nón¨v KnÀ{SoU, Xsó¡mÄ Ccp]¯nsbmóv hbkv IqSpXepÅ Imw-s_ð aIv!entbmUv Fó U¨v ssk\nI DtZymKØs\ hnhmlw Ign¨p. ChÀ¡v cïv Ip«nIfpïmbn- Hcp s]®pw HcmWpw. aIv!entbmUv AanXaZy]m\nbpw kv{Xoe¼S\pambncpóp. KnÀ{SoUsb CbmÄ \nc´cw tZtlm]{Zhtað¸n¨ncpóp. CXn\nsS ChcpsS ]p{X³ ZpcqlkmlNcy¯nð acn¨p. aIsâ BIkvanI acWhpw `À¯mhnð \nópÅ ]oU\hpw ImcWw am\knIambn XIÀó KnÀ{SoU hnhml_Ôw thÀs]Sp¯n, aIsf s\XÀem³Uvknse _Ôp¡sf Gð¸n¨v ]mcoknte¡v t]mbn. hiy taml\ \Kcamb ]mcoknð ]pXnb thj¯nepw, t]cnepw, `mh¯nepamWv KnÀ{SoU cwK{]thiw sNbvXXv. C³Uybnð \nópÅ Hcp tZhZmknsbóv ]cnNbs¸Sp¯nb AhÄ AXn\v Dt]mð-_eIamb Hcp IYbpw sa\sªSp¯p. _mey{]kh¯nð acn¨pt]mb Ing¡³ C³Uybnse Hcp t£{X\À¯InbpsS ]p{Xnbmbn«mWv kzbw AhXcn¨Xv. ]pXnb thjw sImïv sImXn¨sXñmw t\SnsbSp¡m³ Ignbpsaóv AhÄ¡v ip`m]vXn hnizmkapïmbncpóp. X\n¡pÅ hiy skuµcys¯ apXem¡n ]Ww k¼mZn¡pIbmbncpóp AhfpsS e£yw. hSnshm¯ kmam\yw Dbcw IqSnb icocw, Idp¯ncpï XeapSn, Icnw-Iqhf angnIÄ, Cfw \ndw- Hcp C³Uy³ kpµcn¡pÅ Fñm icoc sku`mKy§fpw H¯nW§nb cq]ambncpóp AhfptSXv. ]pXnb emhW¯n\v tNÀsómcp t]cpw AhÄ XncsªSp¯p.....amXmlmcn- ]pecnbpsS I®v FómWv AXn\À°w. ]mcoknse sXcphoYnIfnð B`mk\r¯w Nhn«nb amXmlmcn¡v AhnSs¯ BVy³-amcpsS kzoIcWapdnbnte¡pw AhnsS\nóv InS¸papdnbnte¡papÅ {]thi\w hfsc Ffp¸ambn XoÀóp. NSpe Ne\§fneqsS ]pcpj³-amcpsS a\knf¡nb B hiykpµcnbpsS Bcm[Ihrµw \mÄ¡v \mÄ hÀ[n¨p. AhÄ tNmZn¡pósX´pw \ðIm³ ImapIÀ X½nð að-kcambn. thZnIÄ hn«v thZnIfnte¡v \o§nb AhfpsS JymXn bqtdm¸nemIam\ambn. tamïnImÀtem, _Àen³, am{UnUv FónhnS§fnse [\mVy³-amsc AhÄ ImapIcm¡n. Hómw temIalmbp²w s]m«n¸pds¸« Ime¯v bqtdm¸nse Gähpw hnetbdnb thiybmbn amXmlmcn Adnbs¸«p. PÀ½\nbpsS bphcmPmhv, hntZiImcya{´n, [\mVy\mb {_¬-kzn¡v {]`p XpS§nbhÀ AhfpsS hebnð IpSp§nb {]Kð`³-amcnð NneÀ am{XamWv. 1914 BKÌnð bp²{]Jym]\w \Só Znhkw PÀ½³ t]menkv ta[mhntbmsSm¸w Imdnð _Àen³ \Kc¯nð Npän¡d§pIbmbncpóp amXmlmcn! bp²w sImSp¼ncnsImÅpóXn\nSbnð am!Xmlmcn ]mcoknð Xncns¨¯n. Cu hchnð Xms\mcp C³Uy¡mcnbmsWó AhImihmZw \ntj[n¡pIbpw PÀ½³ `mj emLht¯msS ssIImcyw sN¿m\pw XpS§n. PÀ½\nbnse `cWIqShpambpw ]«mfta[mhnIfpambpw \nc´c _Ôw ]peÀ¯nbncpó amXmlmcnsb {^ôv A[nImcnIÄ kwib¯nsâ t]cnð ]nSnIqSn tNmZyw sNbvXp. Xms\mcp PÀ½³ GPâmsWó Btcm]Ww AhÄ iànbmbn \ntj[n¨p. Xsóbpañ Bhiysa¦nð {^m³knsâ GPâmbn {]hÀ¯n¡m³ X¿mdmsWópw hmKvZm\w \ðIn. {^ôv kÀ¡mÀ Cu hmKvZm\w kzoIcn¨v amXmlmcnsb Hcp Nmch\nXbmbn Hcp¡nsbSp¯v PÀ½\nbnte¡v ]dªb¨p. AhnsS {]mKð`yw sXfnbn¨ Ahsf ]pXnb sZuXyhpambn kvs]bn\nte¡v Ab¨p. bm{Xmat[y {_n«ojpImÀ ChcpsS I¸ð XSªp \nÀ¯n amXmlmcnsb AdÌp sNbvXp. PÀ½³ Nmch\nX ¢mcm s_³UnIvkv BsWó [mcWbnemWv AdÌp \SóXv. Fómð {^m³kn\pthïn {]hÀ¯n¡pó amXmlmcnbmsWóv a\knem¡nbtXmsS {_n«ojpImÀ Ahsf \ncp]m[nIw hn«b¨p. kvs]bn\nse¯nb amXmlmcn hne¡pIÄ ewLn¨v PÀ½³ Ic--\mhnI tk\m DtZymKØcpambn N§m¯¯nteÀs¸«p. {^m³kn\pthïn kvs]bn\nse¯nb AhÄ PÀ½\p thïn {]hÀ¯n¡póXmbn Btcm]WapbÀóp. ImcWw IW¡nð Ihnª kz¯v At¸mtg¡pw AhÄ kz´am¡nbncpóp. 1917 Bbt¸mÄ PÀ½³ ssk\nI DtZymKØÀ Ahsf Is¿mgnªp. Xncn¨v s^{_phcn 12\v ]mcoknse¯nb amXmlmcnsb {^ôv `cWIqSw AdÌpsNbvXp. PÀ½³ U_nÄ GPâmbn {]hÀ¯n¨p FóXmbncpóp Btcm]n¡s¸« Ipäw. amXmlmcnbpsS tlm«ð apdn sdbvUv sNbvX DtZymKØÀ A¿mbncw {^m¦nsâ Hcp sN¡pw Hcp Syq_nð AS¡w sNbvXncpó Hcp Xcw {ZmhIhpw ]nSns¨Sp¯p. amXmlmcn PÀ½³-ImÀ¡v thïn Nmchr¯n \S¯n FóXn\v {^ôpImÀ Im«nb sXfnhpIÄ Chbmbncpóp. bqtdm¸ns\ BIam\w \Kv\\r¯¯neqsS ]pfIaWnbn¨ B hiykpµcnsb skâv emkÀ Pbnense ]{´ïmw \¼À skñneS¨p. XpSÀóv amk§tfmfw \oï tImÀ«v amÀjenð amXmlmcn Xsâ \nc]cm[nXz¯nð Dd¨p \nóp. Syq_nð \nd¨ {ZmhIw KÀ`\ntcm[\¯n\v D]tbmKn¡pó acpómsWópw A¿mbncw {^m¦nsâ sN¡v Nmcm{]hÀ¯\§Ä¡ñ adn¨v PÀ½³ DtZymKØÀ¡v Xm³ \ðInb ssewKnI kpJ¯nsâ {]Xn^eamsWóv AhÄ \nkt¦mNw ]dªp. {^m³kn\v amXmlmcns¡Xnscbpïmbncpó sXfnhpIÄ AtXmsS Akm[phmbn. tImÀ«v amÀjð ]m\ense aqóv PUvPnamsc t\m¡n AhÄ ]dªp-- " "Rms\mcp {^ôvImcnbñ, aäv cmPy§fnð \nóv kplr¯p¡sf k¼mZn¡m³ F\n¡v sauenIamb AhImiapïv. Ahcnð NneÀ {^m³knt\mSv bp²¯nð GÀs¸«ncn¡pIbmsW¦nð t]mepw Rm³ \nc]cm[nbpw \njv]£bpamWv. \n§Ä, {^ôv DtZymKØÀ¡v \ñ a\kpïmIpsaóv Rm³ IcpXpóp " ]mcoknð 1917, Pqembv 24\p \Só Ahkm\ hnNmcWbnð X\n¡v ]dbm\pÅsXñmw kss[cyw hnfn¨p ]dª amXmlmcnsb Ipä¡mcnsbóv sXfnbn¡m³ {^m³knsâ ]¡ð sXfnhpIÄ Hópw Ahtijn¨nñ. hn[n {]Jym]\w Im¯v tImSXn¡v ]pd¯v IqSnb P\Iq«¯n\v amXmlmcnsb hn«b¡psaó {]Xo£bmWpïmbncpóXv. Fómð ]m\ð AwK§fmb PUvPnamÀ cmPym´c {]ikvXn t\Snb thiybpw lnµp \À¯Insbóv kzbw hntijn¸n¡s¸«hfpamb B hnhmZ \mbnIsb shSnh¨p sImñm³ D¯chn«p. t{]mknIyqj³ `mK¯nsâ Ipämtcm]W§Ä¡v AhÀ \nc¯nb sXfnhpIÄ BsI ]cmPbs¸«n«pw C¯c¯nð hn[n {]Jym]n¨Xn\p ]nónð {^m³knsâ IpX{´§fmbncpóp. bp²Ime¯v {^ôv `cWIqSw A`napJoIcn¨psImïncpó kwLÀj¯n\v Hcp ]pIad krãn¡m³ Hcp _enbmSv Bhiyambncpóp. PÀ½\ns¡Xnsc aptódm³ IgnbmsX kJyI£nIÄ t\cn« XSk§Ä¡v ImcWw BcptSsb¦nepw XebnðsI«nhbvt¡ïXv {^m³knsâ Bhiyambncpóp. AXn\mbn amXmlmcnsb Xsó _en]oT¯nteäm³ {^m³kv Xocpam\n¡pIbmbncpóp. 1917 HtÎm_À 15 shfp¸n\v AhÄ hnfn¨pWÀ¯s¸«p. B shfp¸n\v AhÄ acn¡m³ t]mhpIbmsWóv PbneÀ CSdpó IWvTt¯msS Ahsf Adnbn¨p. \mev]s¯mópImcnbmb amXmlmcn sXñpw IqkenñmsX acWs¯ hcn¡m³ AWnsªmcp§n. Xsâ {]ikvXn¡pw \nebv¡pw tbmPn¨ hkv{X§fmWv A´y \nanj¯nð AWnbm\mbn XncsªSp¯Xv. Nmc\nd¯nepÅ DSp¸Wnª AhÄ hensbmcp sXm¸n [cn¨p. Gähpw \ñ jqkpw I¿pdbpw [cn¨v AhÄ skñn\p ]pd¯nd§n PbneptZymKØtcmsSm¸w ^bdnwKv s{Kuïnte¡v Xncn¨p. hn³-skóbnse ssd^nÄ sdbvônð ]{´ïv t]cS§pó ^bdnwKv kvIzmUv Im¯p \nóncpóp. Dd¨Imð-shbv]pItfmsS AhÄ DtZymKØÀ Nqïnb ac¯n\p NphSnte¡v \Sóp. in£ \S¸m¡póXn\p ap³]mbn {]Xn¡v \ðImdpÅ aZyw hm§n IpSn¨p. Fómð ssIIÄ _Ôn¨v act¯mSv Npäns¡«n \nÀ¯m\pÅ DtZymKØcpsS {ias¯ AhÄ FXnÀ¯p. \nÀóntajbmbn, Xsâ t\À¡v shSnbpï DXnÀ¡m³ \nð¡pó ]«mf¡msc Däp t\m¡n \nð¡m\mWv AhÄ B{Kln¨Xv. DtZymKØÀ AXn\v A\phmZw \ðIn, A´y ip{iqjs¡¯nbncpó ]ptcmlnX\pw I\ymkv{XoIfpw ac¨ph«nð \nópw amdn. \nanj§Ä......... Iam³UÀ I¿pbÀ¯n kqN\ \ðIn... \niÐXsb Iodnapdn¨psImïv ]{´ïv shSnsbm¨IÄ apg§n..... ^bdnwKv kvIzmUn\v A`napJambn Zrãn]XdmsX t\m¡n \nð¡pIbmbncpó amXmlmcn, Xsâ DSp¸nse IpSp¡pIÄ Agn¨v \Kv\ amdnSw ]«mf¡mÀ¡v Im«ns¡mSp¯mWv shSnbpïIsf kzoIcn¨Xv...... Hcp ]gb amZI\À¯In Nmchr¯nbpsS t]cnð h[n¡s¸s«óXp Xsó ]e Inw-hZ´nIÄ¡pw Ahkcsamcp¡n. Ahbnsemóv, Bcm¨mÀ¡v AhÀ Hcp "]d¡pw Npw_\w" k½m\n¨p shómbncpóp. ]qÀhImapIòmcnð Hcmfpw, h[in£bpsS ZrIvkm£nbpambncpó Xsâ h¡oens\bmhmw B Npw_\¯nð AhÀ e£yam¡nbXv. "\µn tam¬kntbmÀ" Fómbncpóp AhcpsS A´ysamgn Fópw Duln¡s¸«p. "Rm³ thiybmbncpóp, hôInbmbncpónñ" Fóv AhÀ ]dªXmbpw ]dbs¸Spóp. amX lmcnbpsS icocw Gäphm§m³ IpSpw_mwK§Ä Bcpw aptóm«phcm³ CñmXncpóXn\mð AXv sshZyKthjW¯n\mbn amän h¨p. AhcpsS inckv, ]mcoknse icocLS\bpsS ayqknb¯nð kq£n¡s¸«ncpóp. Fómð 2000 Bïnð AXv ImWmXmbncn¡póXmbn Adnªp. ayqknbw asämcp sI«nS¯ntebv¡p amdnb 1954-ð AXv A{]Xy£ambXmbn IcpXs¸Spóp. 1918-se tcJIfnð, _m¡n icoc`mK§fpw ayqknb¯n\v ssIamäw sNbvXXmbn kqN\bpsï¦nepw Ahbpw Isï¯s¸«n«nñ. ((( amXmlmcn IYbpambn temI¯v Gähpa[nIw hmbn¡s¸Spó Fgp¯pImc\mb ]utem sImbv-tem F¯póp sk]väw_dnð {_koenepw \hw_dnð bp.Fknepw t\mhð dneokv sN¿pw. C´ybnð ]pkvXIw F¯pótXmsSm¸w Xsó aebmf ]cn`mjbpw {]kn²oIcn¡m\mWv ]utem sImbv-tembpsS IrXnIsfñmw aebmf¯nepw AhXcn¸n¨n«pÅ Un kn _pIv-knsâ {iaw. 'Zn kv-ss]' FómWv At±l¯nsâ Gähpw ]pXnb t\mhensâ t]cv. {Iqcamb ]oU\§Ä¡v hnt[bbmIpt¼mÄ XShdbnð \nóv Xsâ h¡oen\v Abbv¡pó I¯pIfneqsS AXnkmlknIX \ndª amX lmcnbpsS PohnXs¯ shfn¨¯v sImïp hcnIbmWv ]utem sImbv-tem. Xsâ PohnXw F´psImïv C§s\bmbn FóXv aIsf Adnbn¡m\mWv Cu I¯pIÄ D]tbmKnt¡ïsXóv h¡oent\mSv ]dªn«papïv AhÀ.]utem sImbv-tembv¡v amXmlmcnbpsS PohnX¯nsâ thdn« ImgvN¸mSv F´mWv Fódnbm³ temIw apgph³ ImtXmÀ¡póp H¸w aebmfnI-fpw.

am[ya \ntfmSv ]dbmXv

s^bÀBâveuen Fó {Ioanð ]ón s\¿v tNÀ¯n«pïv FóXv sNssó sslt¡mSXnbnð I¼\n k½Xn¨p FóXpw InävImäv Fó tNmt¢änð amSnsâ Cd¨nbnð \nópw thÀXncn¡pó ]ZmÀ°§Ä Dïv FóXv s\tÉ I¼\n AwKoIcn¨p FóXpw hnIvkv Hcp tÉm t]mbnk¬ BsWóXpw, hntZi cmPy§fnð AXv \ntcm[n¨ncn¡póp FóXpw sse^vt_mbv tkm¸v Hcp ImÀ t_mfn¡v tkm¸msWópw hntZi§fnð hfÀ¯parK§sf Ipfn¸n¡m³ D]tbmKn¡póXmsWópw sIm¡t¡mf, s]]vkn apXemb ]m\ob§fnð 21 Xcw hnj§Ä AS§nbncn¡póp FóXpw C´y³ ]mÀesaâv Imâo\nð AXv \ntcm[n¨ncn¡póp Fó Imcyhpw , tImw¹m³, tlmÀenIvkv apXembh AIIMS et_md«dnbnð ]cntim[n¡pIbpw AXnse {][m\ tNcph ISe¸n®m¡msWópw, tIcf¯nð \ntcm[n¨ \nd]d akmeIfnepw Afhnð IqSpXð cmkhkvXp¡Ä Dsïópw ]pXnb cq]¯nð Ah Ct¸mgpw e`n¡pópsïópw, sebvknð ¹mÌn¡v Awiw AS§nbn«psïópw, InïÀ tPmbv : sNmIteänð ¹mÌnIv- tImSnwKv DÅXv sImïv bptdm]v cmPy§fnð \ntcm[n¨Xv. am[ya§Ä \n§tfmSv ]dbnñ. ImcWw Ahsc Xoänt¸mäpóXv Chscms¡bmWv . ]s£ thïs¸«hcnte¡v F¦nepw Cu hnhcw \ap¡v ssIamdm³ {ian¡mw

apscnbmdnsdbpw tIcfw I_fnnsXnsbpw Ncn-{Xw

F³sd lrZbcàw sImïmWv Rm³ H¸phbv¡póXv FómWv hnimJw Xncp\mÄ amÀ¯mÞhÀa hyk\t¯msS Cu DS¼Snbnð H¸psh¡póXn\p ap³]v Cu Icmdns\ hntijn¸n¨Xv {]nb kplr¯pIsf At±lw ]dª hm¡pIfpsS AÀ°w \½fnóv Adnbpóp. temI¯nð Cóv \nehnepÅ Dbcw IqSnb `qKpcpXz AWs¡«pIfnð Gähpw ]g¡w sNóXmWnXv. \nÀ½mWImeL«¯nð temI¯nse Gähpw henb AWs¡«mbncpóp apñs¸cnbmÀ. kpÀ¡n an{inXw D]tbmKn¨p \nÀ½n¨ AWs¡«pIfnð temI¯v \nehnepÅ GI AWs¡«v Fó {]tXyIX CXn\pïv. Cóv C´ybnse Gähpw ]g¡apÅ AWs¡«pIfnð HómWv apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v. tIcf¯nð Xsó DÛhn¨v Ahkm\n¡pó hrãn{]tZiamWv AWs¡«n\pÅXv. AkvXnhmc¯nð \nópw GXmïv 53.6aoädmWv (176 ASn) AWs¡«nsâ Dbcw. \ofw 365.7 aoädpw (1200 ASn). AWs¡«v \ne\nð¡póXv tIcf¯nsâ Øe¯msW¦nepw, AXnsâ \nb{´Ww Xangv-\mSnsâ ssIhiamWv. Hcp AWs¡«nsâ Imemh[n Adp]Xp hÀjamsWóncnt¡ \qdp hÀj¯n\p apIfnð ]g¡apÅ apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v AXnsâ {]m´{]tZi§fnepÅhÀ¡pw, tIcf¯nse Aôp Pnñbnse P\§fpsS Poh\pw kz¯n\pw `ojWnbmsWó hmZw tIcfapbÀ¯póp. imkv{Xob ]T\§Ä Nqïn¡mWn¨v tIcf¯nsâ hmZ§Ä¡v Ig¼nsñóv Xangv-\mSpw hmZn¡póp. s]cnbmÀ ]m«¡cmÀ C´y kzX{´bmhpóXn\p ap¼v \nehnð hóXmsWópw, C´y {_n«ojpImcnð \nópw kzmX{´yw t\Snbt¸mÄ {_n«ojpImcpw, C´ybnse \m«pcmPy§fpw X½nð \ne\nóncpó Fñm DS¼SnIfpw, IcmdpIfpw kzbtah d±mbn Fóv tIcfw kp{]owtImSXnbnð hmZn¨ncpóp. ]t£ AsXmópw ^ew Iïnñ. AWs¡«v hó hgn; ]cnKWn¡m¯ Bhiyw apñbmdpw s]cnbmdpw H¯ptNÀóv cq]s¸«v, ]nóoSv 's]cnbmÀ' Fó t]cnð HgpIn Ad_n¡Sense¯nt¨cpó shÅw XSªp\nÀ¯m\pÅ bXv-\§sfmópw ]gb XncphnXmwIqÀ kÀ¡mdnsâ `mK¯p\nópïmbnñ. Irjn¡msc klmbn¡m\mbn XncphnXmwIqdnse s]cnbmäneqsS ]mgmbnt¸mIpó shÅw XSªp\nÀ¯n a{Zmkv {]tZit¯¡v Hgp¡msaó Bibw B {]hniybnse `cWIÀ¯m¡Ä¡v Dïmbn, XncphnXmwIqÀ AXnt\mSv tbmPn¨p. XncphnXmwIqdnsâ D]m[nIÄ 1. XncphnXmwIqÀ \ðIpó `qan¡v \ã]cnlmcambn sdm¡w Ggp e£w cq] \ðIpI. 2. {_n«sâ t\cn«pÅ `cW¯nembncpó AôpsX§v, X¦tÈcn Fóo {]tZi§fpw tNÀ¯e Xmeq¡nse kÀ¡mÀ ]m«w \ne§Ä Fódnbs¸«ncpó 51 G¡À Øehpw XncphnXmwIqdn\v hn«psImSp¡pI. 3. 8000 G¡dnð IqSpXð `qan AWs¡«n\v thïn D]tbmKnt¡ïn hómð Hmtcm G¡dn\pw 50 cq] ]m«ambn IqSpXð \ðIpI. 4. Bhiysa¦nð a{Zmkv {]hniybnse IÀjIÀ¡v shÅw \ðIpó CtX hyhØIfntòð XncphnXmwIqdnse IÀjIÀ¡pw shÅw \ðIpI. D]m[nIfntòð NÀ¨ \Sóp. AôpsX§pw X¦tÈcnbpw tNÀ¯ebnse ]m«w \ne§fpw hn«psImSp¡m\mhnsñóv {_n«ojv kÀ¡mÀ BZyta Xsó ]dªp. aäv hyhØIÄ t`ZKXnItfmsS AwKoIcn¨p. 1886 HtÎm_À 29\v {_n«ojv kÀ¡mdpw XncphnXmwIqdpw apñs¸cnbmÀ ]m«¡cmdnð H¸psh¨p. XncphnXmwIqÀ almcmPmhn\p thïn Znhm³ cma¿¦mdpw C´ym Imcy§Ä¡mbpÅ sk{I«dn Hm^v kvtään\p thïn dknUâv lmónMvSWpamWv. XncphnXmwIqÀ acma¯v-hIp¸v sk{I«dn sI.sI. Ipcphnfbpw BÎnMv slUv kÀ¡mÀ h¡oð sF.F¨v. {]n³kpw km£nIfmbn H¸n«p. (XncphnXmwIqÀ `cWm[nImcn hnimJw Xncp\mÄ cmahÀ½ (1881 - 1885) Cu Icmdnð GÀs¸Sm³ BZyw At±lw kó²\mbncpónñ. Fsâ lrZbcàwsImïmWv Rm³ H¸phbv¡póXv FómWv hnimJw Xncp\mÄ cmahÀ½ hyk\t¯msS Cu Icmdns\ hntijn¸n¨Xv. ]nóoSv {_n«ojv A[nImcnIÄ \b]camb _e{]tbmK¯neqsS XncphnXmwIqdns\ 1886-ð DS¼Snbnð H¸psh¸n¡pIbmbncpóp.) AwKoIcn¡s¸« hyhØIÄ 1.{]XnhÀjw 40,000 cq] \ã]cnlmcambn XncphnXmwIqdn\v \ðIpw. AXv XncphnXmwIqÀ hÀjwtXmdpw {_n«ojv kÀ¡mdn\v sImSp¡pó XpIbnð \nóv Ipdhv sN¿pw. 2.8000 G¡dnð IqSpXð `qan AWs¡«n\v thïn D]tbmKnt¡ïnhómð Hmtcm G¡dn\pw Aôp cq] ]m«ambn IqSpXð \ðIpw. 3.AWs¡«v \nÀamW¯n\mhiyamb acw, Iñv, a®v, apf XpS§nbh {]Xn^esamópw \ðImsX XncphnXmwIqÀ {]tZi¯v \nsóSp¡m³ ]m«¡mc\v AhImiapïmIpw . 4.Icmdnsâ Imemh[n 999 sImñambncn¡pw. 5.IcmÀ \S¸m¡póXn\nSbnð DbÀtó¡mhpó XÀ¡§Ä cïv kÀ¡mdpIfpw \nÝbn¡pó a[yØòmcpsStbm Asñ¦nð AhÀ \nÝbn¡pó A¼bdpsStbm A´naXocpam\¯n\v hnSpw. Umansâ \nÀ½mWw ]Snªmdv Ad_n¡Sente¡v HgpInbncpó s]cnbmdnse shÅw Hcp AWsI«n ITn\ hcĨ A\p`hn¨psImïncn¡pó {]tZi§fmb a[pc, cma\mY]pcw, UnïnKð, I¼w, tX\n apXemb Øe§Ä¡v shÅw e`yam¡mw FóXmbncpóp apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ {][m\ \nÀ½mW Dt±iw. Cu {]tZit¯¡v shÅw F¯n¨psImïncpóXv sshK \ZnbneqsS Bbncpóp. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v \S¸nð hómð sshK \Znbnð IqsS e`yamIpó Pet¯¡mÄ IqSpXð apñs¸cnbmdnð \nóp In«pw FóXmbncpóp {][m\ BIÀjWw. kap{Z\nc¸nð \nóv 5000 ASn Dbc¯nemWv apñs¸cnbmÀ ØnXn sN¿póXv. AWs¡«n\v 1200 ASn \ofhpw 155 ASn Dbchpw. Cu s^{_hcnbnð Umw \nÀan¨n«v 116 hÀjw ]qÀ¯nbmbn. Aós¯ \nÀ½mW kma{KnIfpw Adnhpw kmt¦XnI hnZybpamWv Umw \nÀamW¯n\v D]tbmKn¨Xv. Ct¸mgs¯ AWs¡«n\v GI`mhanñ. ]e Ime¯v ]eXcw hkvXp¡Ä sImïpÅ tNÀ¸mbn AXv amdnbncn¡póp. Cós¯ AWs¡«pIÄ¡v sImSp¡pót]mse 'FIv-kv]m³j³ tPmbâp'Isfmópw apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\nñ. apgph³ Hä t»m¡mWv. AWs¡«nsâ apónð, Pemibs¯ sXm«ncn¡pó `mK¯v kpÀ¡nbpw Np®m¼pw tNÀ¯pïm¡nb Nm´v D]tbmKn¨pÅ d_nÄ tak¬dn, (A¡me¯v \nÀamWtaJebnð knaâv {]Nmc¯nembncpónñ.) AXn\v sXm«p]nónð Np®m¼pw kpÀ¡nbpw Iñpw tNÀ¯pÅ tIm¬{Ioäv, ]nónð hoïpw kpÀ¡nbpw Np®m¼pw tNÀ¯pïm¡nb Nm´v D]tbmKn¨pÅ d_nÄ tak¬dn, AXn\ptijw {Ku«v sNbvXv ASbv¡m¯ t\cnb hnShv, Gähpw HSphnð ]gb AWs¡«nsâ ]n³`mK¯v ]pXnb tIm¬{Ioäv Fón§s\bmWv Ct¸mgs¯ AhØ. shÅw \nd¨ BZyZnhk§fnð Xsó AWs¡«nsâ ]n³`mK¯v \\hpw Dudepw IïpXpS§nsbóv tcJIÄ ]dbpóp. Cu Dudð Pe¯neqsS {]XnhÀjw icmicn 30 S¬ Np®m¼v \ãs¸«psImïncn¡pópshóv ]dªXv Xangv-\mSv Xsó. tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ D]RvPmXmhpw, krãnIÀ¯mhpambn Adnbs¸Spó Cw¥ojpImc\mWv tPm¬ s]\n Iyq¡v. 1858 ð tdmbð anen«dn Fôn\obdnwKv tImtfPnð \nópw {_n«ojv tdmbð Fôn\obÀ Fó _ncpZw IcØam¡nb Bfmbncpóp tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v. tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡pw taPÀ ssdhpw IqSn hfsc¡mew {ian¨v apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\p thïn Hcp ]²Xn X¿mdm¡n. Aós¯ IW¡\pkcn¨v 62 e£w C´y³ cq] sNehp hcpó ]²Xnbmbncpóp Ccphcpw IqSn X¿mdm¡nbXv. 1887 ð AWs¡«nsâ inemØm]\ IÀ½w \nÀÆln¡pIbpw DS³ Xsó \nÀ½mWw Bcw`n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. ]t£ I\¯ agbpw shÅs¸m¡hpw \nÀ½mWs¯ CSXShnñmsX XSÊs¸Sp¯n. sI«ns¸m¡nb `mKw shŸm¨nenð \in¨pt]mbn. tPmen¡mÀ lnwk arK§Ä¡ncbmbn. CtXmsS Cu \nÀ½mWw XpStcïXnsñóv kÀ¡mÀ Xocpam\n¨p. \ncmi\mb tPm¬ s]\nIyq¡v IpSpw_ktaXw Cw¥ïnte¡p t]mbn. Fómð Cu AWs¡«v Xm³ Hä¡p Xsó \nÀ½mWw ]qÀ¯nbm¡psaóv At±lw {]XnÚsbSp¯ncpóp. Cw¥ïnse¯nb At±lhpw `mcy t{Kkv tPmÀÖo\bpw AhnsSbpÅ X§fpsS k¼mZyw apgph³ hnäp ]Wam¡nbtijw C´ybnte¡p Xncn¨phcnIbpw, Hcp th\ð¡me¯nsâ Bcw`¯nð \nÀ½mWw XpS§pIbpw sNbvXp. sXm«p]nómse hó ag¡mew B ASn¯dsb XIÀ¯nñ, s]\nIyq¡nsâ ZrV \nÝb¯n\p kÀ¡mcpw Dd¨ ]n´pW \ðIn. 1895 ð AWs¡«nsâ \nÀ½mWw ]qÀ¯nbmbn. 81.30 e£w cq] BsI Nnehmbn. XÀ¡w XpS§nbsX§s\ 1961 se shÅs¸m¡t¯mSpIqSnbmWv bYmÀ°¯nð Cu AWs¡«nsâ kpc£sbs¨mñnbpÅ hmZ§fpw FXnÀhmZ§fpw DbÀóp hóXv. C´y kzX{´bmbXn\ptijhpw AXn\pap¼pÅ IcmÀ D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSv ChnSps¯ Pew tIcfhpambpÅ Hcp kahmb¯n\p ]pd¯v sImïpt]mbns¡mïncpóp. ]nóoSv Xangv-\mSv Cu Pe¯nð sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡m\pw XpS§n. 1976ð kn. ANypXtat\m³ apJya{´nbmbncpó Ime¯v 1886se Icmdns\ bmsXmcp D]m[nIfpw IqSmsX ]pXp¡n. 1970 se Cu ]pXp¡nb Icmdnð apñs¸cnbmdnse Pew D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSn\v sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡m³ k½Xw sImSp¯psImïpÅ hyhØ tNÀ¡pIbpw sNbvXp. IqSmsX ]²Xn {]tZi¯v Hcp ]pXnb sshZypX\nebw \nÀ½n¡m\pw ]pXnb Icmdnð hyhØbpïmbncpóp. apñs¸cnbmdnse Pew D]tbmKn¨v Xangv-\mSv DXv]mZn¸n¡pó sshZypXnbnð \nópw tIcf¯n\p In«pó hnlnXw shdpw \maam{Xamb XpIbmbncpóp. 1979ð KpPdm¯nð kw`hn¨ a¨p AWs¡«nsâ XIÀ¨sb¯pSÀópïmb hmÀ¯IfpsS ]Ým¯e¯nð apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nsâ kao] {]tZi§fnse P\§Ä ]cn{`m´nbnembn. XpSÀóv tI{µ `ua imkv{X]T\ tI{µw \S¯nb ]T\w AWs¡«n\v dnÎÀ kv-sIbnenð Bdv hcpó `qI¼s¯ Xm§m³ Ignbnsñóp dnt¸mÀ«p \ðIn. XpSÀóv A¡mes¯ Pe\nc¸mb 142.2 ASn Fó Pe\nc¸nð \nópw Xangv-\mSv Pe\nc¸v 136 ASnbmbn Ipd¨p. P\§fnepïmb ]cn{`m´n 1976ð Dïm¡nb Icmdnð \nópw ]ntóm«pt]mIphm³ tIcfs¯ t{]cn¸n¨p. CXp Xangv-\mSv XpSÀ¨bmbn tNmZyw sN¿pIbpw, IqSpXð Pew Bhiys¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. XpSÀóv tIcfw P\§fpsS kpc£bv¡p ]pdta s]cnbmÀ h\yPohn kt¦X¯nepïmIpó ssPh\ãsaó ]cnØnXn {]iv-\w IqSn apñs¸cnbmÀ {]iv-\¯nð DÄs¸Sp¯n. kpc£m{]iv-\§Ä 1. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«n\v 116 hÀjs¯ ]g¡apïv. Hcp AWs¡«nsâ Imemh[n 60hÀjamWv. thï{X ap³IcpXð FSp¯mepw Hcp Zpc´s¯ AXnPohn¡m³ Cu AWs¡«n\v Ignbnñ. 2. \nÀ½mW¯n\v D]tbmKn¨ncn¡pó an{inX§Ä Ime¸g¡s¯ AXnPohn¡nñ. Gsd `mKw HgpInt¸mbn. 3. apñs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«v \nð¡póXv `qI¼ {`witaJebnemWv. 4. AWs¡«v ]cn]men¡póXnð hó hogvNIÄ. 5 AWs¡«nsâ BsI Dbct¯¡mÄ IqSpXð shÅw s]m§nbmð apIfneqsS hcpó shÅw AWs¡«nsâ Xmsg ]Xn¡pIbpw B k½À±¯nð AWs¡«nsâ ASn¯d CfIpIbpw sN¿pw. CXpIqSmsX AWs¡«nsâ ASn`mKw CfInadnbpItbm \nc§namdpItbm sN¿mw. s]s«ópïmb {]fb Pe¯nð a[y{]tZinse Sn{K AWs¡«v C{]Imcw BWv \new]Xn¨Xv. Xangv-\mSv shÅw sImïpt]mIpó hgn tX¡Sn t_m«v em³Un§n\Sp¯p\nóv XSmI¯nsâ AcnInð¡qSn 5342 ASn \ofhpw 21 ASn, ASn¯«v hoXnbpapÅ I\meneqsS shÅw Ipafn SuWn\Sp¯v F¯n¡póp. tX¡Sn ]mÀ¡nsâ {]thi\ `mK¯mWnXv. h\whIp¸nsâ sN¡v-t]mÌn\Sp¯v. AhnsS \nóv aeXpcóv, I¼wtX\n tdmUn\Snbnð¡qSn 5887 ASn \ofapÅ SWeneqsS ]ÝnaL«¯nsâ A¸pds¯¯n¡póp. AhnsS 3.2 Zie£w L\bSn am{Xw tijnbpÅ UmanemWv shÅsa¯pI. Cu Umanð \nóv sk¡³Unð 1600 L\bSn shÅw sImïpt]mIm³ tijnbpÅ, 3992 ASn \ofw hcpó ]hÀ SWeneqsS aebpsS asämcp `mKs¯¯n¡póp. AhnsS \nóv sk¡³Unð 400 L\bSn hoXw shÅw {]hln¸n¡m³ Ignbpó \mev s]³kvtäm¡v ss]¸neqsS temhÀIym¼v sshZypX \neb¯nemWv shÅsa¯n¡pI. Cu shÅap]tbmKn¨v ChnsS 140 saKmhm«v sshZypXn DXv]mZn¸n¡póp. AXn\ptijw Cu shÅw hssch\mdneqsS sshssK AWs¡«nð F¯nt¨cpóp. sshssK AWs¡«nsâ XmsgbmWv Cu shÅw D]tbmKn¨v PetkN\w sN¿pó {][m\ AWs¡«v. sshssKbnð F¯póXn\pap¼v ]Xn\mbnc¯ne[nIw G¡À Øe¯v Cu shÅw D]tbmKn¨v Irjn sN¿pópïv. Umw XIÀómð apñs¸cnbmÀ Umw HómsI XIcpIbmsW¦nð 50 ASn Dbc¯nemWv shÅw CSp¡n Umante¡v shÅw IpXns¨¯m³ km[yX. Cu `mK¯pÅ hÅ¡Shv, hïns¸cnbmÀ, amae, N¸m¯v, D¸pXd, A¿¸³Ihnð {]tZi§fnse 70,000 t]cpsS Poh\mWv CXpaqew A]IS¯nemIpI. Chcnð 30,000 t]cpw Xangv hwiPcmsWóXv asämcp {]tXyIXbmWv. s]s«ópÅ BLmX¯nð CSp¡n Umw XIÀómð XmsgbpÅ 11 AWs¡«pIfpw XIcmw. ^e¯nð CSp¡n, FdWmIpfw, tIm«bw, Be¸pg PnñIfnse P\§sfbmsI _m[n¡póXnte¡mWv C¯csamcp Zpc´km[yX hncðNqïpóXv. apñs¸cnbmÀ Umans\m¸w CSp¡n Umansâ IqSn XIÀ¨ tIcfs¯ cïmbn hn`Pn¡póXn\v CSbm¡psaómWv apñs¸cnbmÀ Umansâ _e£bw ]Tn¡m³ kp{]ow tImSXn \ntbmKn¨ sk³{Sð tkmbnð B³Uv saäocnbð dntkÀNv kvtäj³ Sow \ðInb clky dnt¸mÀ«nð ]dbpóXv.

BaNmSn tXhs\ Adnbmh Adnbs

tIcf¯nð kzmX{´y kac§tfmS\p_Ôn¨p \Só ssh¡w kXym{Kl¯n\p ap³t] Xsó XmgvóPmXn¡msc kwLSn¨v khÀW ta[mhnXz¯ns\Xntc BaNmSn tXh³ Fódnbs¸«ncpó I®³ tXh³ Xmgvó PmXn¡mÀ¡v {]thi\anñmXncpó ]qt¯m« t£{X¯nð _eambn Ibdn ZÀi\w \S¯nb Cu kacs¯ ]qt¯m« tIkv Fódnbs¸Spóp Cu kacambncpóp ssh¡w kXym{Kl¯n³sd XpS¡w Fóp ]dbmw ImcWw CXn³sd t]cnð AdÌnemb tXh³ Pbnð tamNnX\mbt¸mÄ ssh¡w kXym{Kl¸´ente¡mWv t]mbXv. 1924 amÀ¨v- 30 \v- Bcw`n¨ ssh¡w kXym{Kl¯nð BZyw apXð Xsó tXh³ kPohambn ]s¦Sp¯p.ssh¡¯v- Xoïð ]eIbpsS AXnÀ¯n ewLn¨p \Só Ipª¸ntbbpw _mlptebt\bpw tKmhnµ¸Wn¡tcbpw AdÌv- sNbv-Xt¸mÄ almßmKmÔn¡v- Pbv- hnfn¨psImïv- \nó kac¡mcnð HcmÄ tXh\mbncpóp. ssh¡w kXym{Kl¯n\v CSbnð NnInÕ¡mbn Xncph\´]pct¯¡v- t]mb Sn sI am[h\v- I¯v- apJm´ncw hnhc§sfms¡ ssIamdnbXv- BaNmSn tXh\mbncpóp shóv- tIm«ptImbn¡ð thembp[\v- Sn sI am[h³ sImñ¯p\nópw Ab¨ I¯nð tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pïv-. (almßmKmÔn kÀhIemimem {]kn²oIcW hn`mK¯n³sd "ssh¡w kXym{Kl tcJIÄ" Fó ]pkv-XIw. t]Pv- 243 ) Cu [oc\mb hn¹hImcnbpsS PòØew Be¸pg Pnñbnse tNÀ¯e Xmeq¡nð s]« t£{X§fpsS \mSv- Fódnbs¸Spó th¼\m«p Imbense s]cp¼fw Zzo]mWv- . 1967 hsc Pohn¨ncpó tXh³sd P\\ XnbXnsb¸än hyàamb tcJIfnñ. I®\pw Imfnbpw Bbncpóp tXh³sd AÑ\pw A½bpw. tXh³sd \memw hbknð Xsó B km[p¡Ä acn¨p. s]cp¼fs¯ {]ikv-X \mbÀ XdhmSmbncpó It®¯p ho«nse IrjnImcy§Ä t\m¡n \S¯nbncpóXv- Chcmbncpóp. Cu Xdhm«nse Krl\mY A¨p¡p«nb½, A\mY\mb tXhs\ ho«nte¡v- Iq«ns¡mïpt]móp. A¨p¡p«nb½ a¡Äs¡m¸w tXh³ A\u]NmcnI hnZym`ymkw t\Sn. PmXnNn´bpsS ZpÀKÔ]qcnXamb kaql¯nte¡v- tXh³ Cd§n \Sóp. Cu Ime¯mWv- hmb\bnð I¼apïmbncpó tXh³ ]e ]pkv-XI§fnte¡pw Is®dnªXv-. AXv-, s\dntISpIÄs¡Xntc {]hÀ¯n¡m\pÅ Adnhpw DuÀÖhpambn tXh\nð \ndªp. `mhnbnð A¨p¡p«nb½¡v- Hcp If¦amImXncn¡m³ AhnsS \nópw t]mtb Xocq Fó Hcp Nn´ tXhs\ Ae«m³ XpS§n. C{Xbpw Imew kz´w aIs\ t]mse Aów Xóv- kv-t\ln¨ [\ybmb B A½tbmSv- Imcy§Ä t_m[n¸n¨v- ]Snbnd§pt¼mÄ bphmhmb tXhsâ DÅp ]pIbpópïmbncpóp. CaIfndp¡n¸nSn¨v- XfÀóp \nó A¨p¡p«nb½tbmSp bm{X tNmZn¡m³ sIð¸nñmsX tXh³ ]pXnsbmcnSw tXSn \Sóp. A§s\bmWv- tXh³ sXm«Sp¯pÅ BaNmSn Xpcp¯nð F¯póXv-. (Be¸pg, tIm«bw, FdWmIpfw Fóo aqóv PnñIÄ kwKan¡pó BaNmSn Xpcp¯nsâ BsI hnkvXoÀWw 56 G¡À Bbncpóp.) B Xpcp¯ns\ sh«ns¯fn¨v AhnsS Hcp IpSnð sI«n Xmakw XpS§n. Cu Ime¯mWv- tXh³sd hnhmlw \SóXv-. `mcybpsS t]cv- Imfn Fómbncpóp. HcmWpw aqóp s]®pw AhÀ¡p ]ndóp. B Zm¼Xyw A[nIImew \oïp \nónñ. Imfn acn¨p. tXh³ cïmaXv- s]móm¨nsb hnhmlw Ign¨p. AXnð F«v- a¡Ä ]ndóp. tXh\nð A¦pcn¨ hn¹ht_m[w Abn¯ PmXn¡mÀ¡v {]thi\anñmXncpó t£{X§Ä¡v t\tcbmbncpóp AXmbncpóp ssh¡w - ]qt¯m« kac§fnte¡v {]cn¸n¨Xv. ssh¡w kXym{Kl¯n\v A\p_Ôambn Dïmb {]iv\§fpsS `mKambn kXym{Kl¯n\v FXntc {]hÀ¯n¨ DóXPmXn¡mcmb A{IanIÄ ]¨¨p®m¼pw I¼«n¡dbpw Hgn¨v Imgv¨iàn CñmXm¡n. XpSÀóv AdÌv sNbvXv tIm«bw Pbnente¡v sImïpt]mbn .Cu kabw tXh³sd `mcy s]móm¨nbpw a¡fpw ssh¡w B{ia¯nemWv A`bw tXSnbXv. Pbnðhmkthfbnse {Iqcamb s]meokv aÀ±\hpw I®nsâ ImgvN a§epw At±l¯n³sd icocs¯bpw a\knt\bpw XfÀ¯n.hnt[b\mbn ssh¡w kXym{Klw Ahkm\n¨Xn\p tijw am{Xambncpóp tXh\v tImSXn Pmayw A\phZn¨Xv. Pbnð tamN\¯n\p tijw Xpcp¯nð Xncn¨¯nb tXh\v kz´w sNä¡pSnð t]mepw AhnsS ImWm³ Ignªnñ.BZÀi[oc\mb tXhsâ I®n³sd NnInÕ¡mbn kzmX{´ykactk\m\n sI.]n. tIihtat\m³sd I¯nð \nópw Imcy§Ä Adnª KmÔnPn hSt¡ C´ybnð \nópw sImSp¯b¨ Nne ]¨acpópIfpsS klmbt¯msSbmWv tXh\v \ãs¸« ImgvNiàn hosïSp¡m\mbXv. C´y³ \mjWð tIm¬{Kkv t\Xmhpw kzmX{´y kac tk\m\nbpambncpó sI.]n. tIihtat\msâ hfsc ASp¯ A\pbmbnbmbncpó I®³ tXh³ tIihtat\m³ hgnXsó almßmKmÔnbpambn ]cnNbs¸«Xv . KmÔn, tXhs\ PohnX¯nse {][m\amb kµÀ`§fnð ssIs¡mtÅïpó BZÀi§sf¡pdn¨v D]tZin¡pIbpw sNbvXp Fóp ]dbs¸Spóp. I®³ tXh\v \mcmbW Kpcphnt\bpw ]cnNbs¸Sm\pÅ Ahkcw Dïmbn. Xr¸qWn¯pd ]p¯³ Imhv t£{X¯nse {]XnjvTbpambn _Ôs¸«p AhnsSsb¯nb Kpcphns\ ImWms\¯nb tXhs\ Kpcp "tXh\ñ tZh\mWv" Fóp hntijn¸n¨p Fópw ]dbs¸Spóp. BZÀi[oc\mb tXh³sd Ahkm\Imew hfsc IãXIÄ \ndªXmbncpóp. BaNmSnbnð XsóbmWv I®³ tXhs\bpw AS¡w sNbvXXpw .tIm¬{Kkv t\Xm¡fpambpÅ k¼À¡w At±ls¯ Hcp tZiobhmZnbpw tIm¬{KkpImc\pambn amän. Fómð At±l¯n³sd AhiXbnð ]¦mfnbmImt\m, At±lw sh«ns¯fn¨ `qan \ãs¸«Xv hm§ns¡mSp¡mt\m .Hcp tIm¬{Kkv- {]hÀ¯I³ t]mepw B hgn¡v- sNón«nsñóv- tXh³sd a¡Ä ]dbpóp.tIm¬{Kkv {]hÀ¯Icnð sI ]n tIihtat\m³ am{XamWv B ImeL«¯nð tXhs\ Ipdn¨v hñt¸mgpsa¦nepw At\zjn¨psImïncpósXóv a¡fmb ktcmPn\nbpw hÅnbpw ]dbpIbpïmbn. B BZÀi[oc\mb t]mcmfnbpsS PohnX¯nt\m kw`mh\IÄt¡m thï ]cnKW\ \ðInbn«nsñóXmWv kXyw ssh¡w - ]qt¯m« kac§fnð DPze \ndkmón²yambncpó BaNmSn tXhs\ ]nóoSv cNn¡s¸« apJy[mcmNcn{X§fnð G«nð \nópw a\x]qÀÆw Hgnhm¡s¸«p. Asñ¦nð [oc\mb hn¹hImcnbpsS P\\w apXð acWw hscbpÅ IYIÄ tX³hm¡pIfmbn ]pXnb Ime¯n³sd \mhneqsS HgpIpambncpóp. Ncn{Xw Hcn¡epw ad¡m¯ BaNmSn tXh³ Fó [oc\mb hn¹hImcn¡v HcptImSn {]Wmaw AÀ¸n¨p sImïv {]nb kplr¯p¡sf \ap¡v F¦nepw BZÀi[oc\mb Cu t]mcmfnsb ad¡mXncn¡mw

tImln\q F Imn]hXnsd tZimS\ IY Adnbmh Adnbs

Hcp P\XbpsS, Hcp kwkvImc¯n³sd apKv[ k¦ð¸§fpsS, A[nImc taml§fpsS, `uXnINn´IfpsS, {]Xn_nw_ambn amdn tImln\qÀ. cmPy§fpsSbpw kwkvImc§fpsSbpw AXnÀhc¼pIÄ t`Zn¨psImïv tImln\qÀ Fó Im´n]ÀhX¯n³sd tZimS\ IY ]dbpóp. Ncn{X]camb sXfnh\pkcn¨v, B{Ôm{]tZinse KpïqÀ Pnñbnse ]cnXme Fó {Kma¯n\Sp¯pÅ sImñqÀ J\nbnð \nómWv Cu h{P¡ñv J\\w sNbvsXSp¯Xv HcpIme¯v temIs¯ Gähpw henb h{P¡ñv Fó JymXnbpïmbncpó cXv\amWv tImln\qÀ AYhm tImlv-C \qÀ {]Imi¯nsâ ae FómWv 105 Iymcäv AYhm 21.6 {Kmw Xq¡apÅ Cu cXv\¯nsâ t]cn\À°w. t]Àjy³ N{IhÀ¯nbmbncpó \mZnÀ jmbmWv tImln\qÀ Fó t]cv Cu cXv\¯n\v \ðInbsXóp IcpXpóp C´ybnse lnµp, apÉnw, apKÄ cmPm¡òmcptSbpw t]Àjy³, A^vKm³ cmPm¡òmcptSbpw ssIIfneqsS ISóp t]mbn hoïpw C´ybnse knJpImcpsS ssIhisa¯pIbpw XpSÀóv {_n«ojpImcpsS ssIIfnemIpIbpw sNbvXp. hnIvtämdnb cmÚn C´ybpsS N{IhÀ¯n\nbmbt¸mÄ, 1877-ð Cu cXv\w AhcpsS IncoS¯nsâ `mKambn. CXn\pthïnbmWv, 186 1/16 Imcäv (37.21 {Kmw) `mcapïmbncpó Cu h{P¡ñns\ Cós¯ 105.602 Imcäv (21.61 {Kmw) Bbn sN¯nan\p¡nbXv. Ncn{X]camb sXfnh\pkcn¨v, B{Ôm{]tZinse KpïqÀ Pnñbnse `cWm[nImcnIfmbncpó ImImXy cmPm¡òmcpsS A[o\Xbnembncpóp Cu h{P¡ñv. 1323-ð Znñnbnse Xp¥Iv hwi¯nse kpð¯m\mbncpó Knbmkv DZv Zo³ Xp¥Insâ tk\m\mbI\mb DeqKv Jm³, ImImXy cmPm¡òmsc tXmð¸n¡pIbpw ImImXycpsS BØm\ambncpó HmdpKñp (Cós¯ hmd¦ð) sImÅbSn¨p \in¸n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. C§s\ sImÅbSn¨v Znñnbnte¡v IS¯nb hne]nSn¸pÅ hkvXp¡fnð sImln\qÀ cXv\hpw DÄs¸«ncpóp. XpSÀóv Cu cXv\w Znñnbnð ]nð¡me¯v A[nImc¯nð hó kpð¯mòmÀ¡v ssIamdns¡mïncn¡pIbpw, 1526-ð apKÄ km{amPy¯nsâ Øm]I\mb _m_dpsS ssIhisa¯pIbpw sNbvXp. apKÄ ]c¼cbnse Aômas¯ N{IhÀ¯nbmbncpó jm Plm³, Cu Cu Iñns\, Xsâ {]kn²amb abqcknwlmk\¯nsâ `mKam¡n. jm Plmsâ ]p{X³ HudwKtk_v, ]nóoSv Cu cXv\s¯ emtlmdnte¡v sImïpt]mIpIbpw AhnsS Xm³ ]WnIgn¸n¨ _mZvimln akvPnZnð kq£n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. 1739-ð t]Àjybnð \nópÅ \mZnÀ jm, C´y B{Ian¨Xns\¯pSÀóv, tImln\qÀ cXv\hpw, abqcknwlmk\hpaS¡w sImÅbSn¨v t]Àjybnte¡v IS¯n. tImlv-C \qÀ Fó t]cv Cu Iñn\v \ðInbXv \mZnÀ jmbmsWóv IcpXs¸Spóp. 1739-\p ap³]v C§s\ Hcp t]cv Cu cXv\¯n\p \nehnepÅXmbn tcJIfnñ. 1747-ð \mZnÀjm acWaSªXn\ptijw, tImln\qÀ, At±l¯nsâ ]n³-Kmanbpw sNdpaI\pambncpó anÀk jm cqJnsâ ssIbnembncpóp. Ct±lw aiv-lZv XeØm\am¡n ]Snªmd³ A^vKm\nkvXm\pw Ing¡³ Cdm\paS§pó Jpdmkmsâ `cWm[nImcnbmbncpóp. 1751-ð A^vKm\nIfpsS Zpdm\n km{amPyØm]I\mb AÒZv jm AÐmen, jmcqJns\ ]cmPbs¸Sp¯n kma´\m¡nbtXmsS, tImln\qÀ cXv\w, AÒZv jm¡v ssIamtdïn hóp 1809-ð Aômas¯ Zpdm\n N{IhÀ¯nbmbncpó jm jqP, Xsâ AÀ²ktlmZc\mb aÒqZv jmtbmSv ]cmPbs¸«v ]emb\w sN¿pt¼mÄ tImln\qÀ cXv\w ssIhis¸Sp¯nbncpóp. emtlmdnse knJv t\Xmhv cRvPnXv kn§n\Sp¯v A`bw tXSnb jqP, ChnsS h¨v Xsâ ssIbnse tImlnóqÀ cXv\w 1813-ð cRvPnXv kn§n\v ssIamdn. 1849-ð {_n«ojpImÀ knJpImsc tXmð¸n¨tXmsS tImlnóqÀ cXv\w {_n«ojpImcpsS ssIhisa¯n. XpSÀóv CXv {_n«ojv cmÚn¡v ssIamdpIbpw sNbvXp. 1852-ð BwÌÀUmanð h¨v hnIvtämdnb cmÚnbpsS `À¯mhv Bð_À«v cmPIpamcsâ t\cn«pÅ taðt\m«¯nemWv Cu cXv\w sN¯nan\p¡nbXv. 1877-ð hnIvtämdnb N{IhÀ¯n\nbmbn C´ybnð A[nImc¯ntednbtXmsS cXv\w AhcpsS IncoS¯nsâ `mKambn.tImln\qÀ cXv-\w Ct¸mÄ ShÀ H^v eï\nemWv kq£n¨ncn¡póXv. C´ybnð\nóv IS¯ns¡mïpt]mb Aaqeyamb tImln\qÀ cXv\w{_n«³sd {]Xm]¯n³sd {]XoIambmWv CXns\ ImWpóXv. cXv\w C´y¡v Xncn¨p \ðIm\mhnsñóv {_n«ojv {][m\a{´n tUhnUv Imadq¬. 2013-ð {XnZn\ kµÀi\¯nsâ Ahkm\ Znhkw AarÕdnð am[ya{]hÀ¯ItcmSv kwkmcn¡pt¼mgmWv Imadq¬ C¡mcyw hyàam¡nbXv. Cu cXv\w Xncn¨p \ðIWsaóv hÀj§fmbn \nch[n C´y¡mÀ {_n«t\mSv Bhiys¸SpóXmWv. almßm KmÔnbpsS t]c¡nSmhpw C¡mcyw Bhiys¸«ncpóp.Fómð, Xncn¨p \ðIpI Fó Bibt¯mSv tbmPn¸nsñóv Imadq¬ ]dªp. C¡mcy¯nð hn«phogvNbnñ. ]pcmX\ {Koknð\nóv {_n«\nð F¯n¨ FðPn³ amÀ_nÄ inð¸w Xncn¨p \ðIWsaó {Koknsâ Bhiy¯n\p kam\amWv CsXópw Imadq¬ ]dªp. {_n«ojpImÀ ]pcmX\ {Koknð\nóv IS¯ns¡mïpt]mb FðPn³ inð]§Ä Xncn¨p\ðIWsaóv {Kokv \nch[n XhW {_n«t\mSv Bhiys¸«ncpóp. HSphnð CXv Xncn¨p \ðImsX hne \ðImsaóv k½Xn¡pIbmbncpóp {_n«³. temIt¯ähpw aqeytadnb hkvXp¡fnsemómbn KWnbv¡s¸SpóXmWv tImln\qÀ cXv-\w. HmSv -sImïv \nÀ½n¨n«pÅ _p²sâ ]qÀ®Imb {]XnabmWv kpð¯m³Kôv _p². 2.3 aoäÀ Dbchpw 1 aoäÀ hoXnbpapïv {]Xnabv¡v. CXpÄs¸sS Ht«sd AaqeyhkvXp¡Ä C´ybnð \nóv {_n«³ IS¯nbncpóp....

\psS asf Hmp hne]ntIn hcp ImeLXnemtWm \mw Pohnp--Xv

]{X am[ya§fneqsS \mw Znhkpw hmbn¡póXv Ip«nIÅòmsc ]nSnIqSpó IYIfmWv. Gsd k¦St¯msSbmWv AXns\ ImWpóXv. \ñ hnZym`ymkw \ðIm³ ]mSvs]Spó c£nXm¡Ä Ahsc Gähpw \ñ hnZymeb§fnð ]Tn¡m³ Ab¡póp, aI³/aIÄ Hcn¡epw hgn sXänsñó hnizmkXbnð... ]t£ ChnsS kw`hn¡póXv adn¨pw, B¬Ip«nIsf t]mse s]¬Ip«nIfpw hgn sXänt]mIpó ImgvNIfmWv ImWm³ IgnbpóXv-. CXnð \nóv Ahsc c£n¡m³ \½Ä {i²nt¨ ]äq. "X³ Ipªp s]m³Ipªp"FómWv ]gsamgn, Ft¸mgpw aäpÅ Ip«nIfpsStað Ipäw Npa¯nbpw kmlNcy§sf ]ng¨pw \mw kzbw ssIbn aeÀ¯pt¼mÄ, XIÀóSnbpóXv \½Ä hcvj§tfmfw IqSpsI«nb kz]v-\§Ä BsWó Xncn¨dnhv ad¡cpXv. tkmjyð aoUnbIÄ hgn \½psS a¡Ä F´mWv sNbpóXv, BtcmSmWv AhÀ N§m¯w ]peÀ¯póXv, F´mWv AhcpsS kz`mhw Fsóms¡ c£nXm¡Ä ]cntimZn¡Ww. hmSvkvB]v hgn kz´w \\Kv\ t^mt«mkv t]mepw kp{lvXp¡Ä¡v Ab¨p sImSp¡m³ aSnbnñm¯ s]¬Ip«nIfpw, kv{XoIfpw \½p¡v Npäpw Dsïódnbpt¼mÄ eRvPnNp Xe Xmgvt¯ïn hcpóp. CXv ssIamdn Ahkm\w BßlXy Fó Ahkm\ ]nSnsIm¼nð F¯ns]Spó Img¨IfmWv IïpsImïncn¡póXv. ]pcpjòmÀ Ft¸mgpw A[nkmaÀ°yw D]tbmKn¡póhmcmWv, 1000 skIvkv ¢n¸pIÄ ]cntimZn¨mð AXnð HcnS¯v t]mepw ]pcpj³ Ahsâ apJw AXnð ImWn¡nñ, hnZKv[ambn Ah³ AXnð \nóv Hgnªp amdpw. ]nóoSv `ojWnbpsS kzc§Ä, Ahsâ Iq«pImÀ¡pw aäpwhsc Ahsf ImgvN sh¡pó IYIÄ \mw ]{X am[ya§fneqsS \mw hmbn¡póp. ]t£ CsXmópw F\n¡v _m[n¡pó {]iv\añ Fó Hcp Bßhnizmkw CXns\ms¡ \nóv sImSp¡m³ t{]cn¸n¡póp. amdm³ kabambn... amä§fv¡v thïn kabw Im¯p\nð¡nñ... \½psS a¡sf \mw kwc£n¡pI... Fñm hnX ssewKnI NqjW§fnð \nópw, AkòmÀInI hgnIfnð \nópw Ahsc c£n¡m³ \½p¡v ]cn{ian¡mw... hoSmWv BZy _me ]mTw... B hoSpIfnð \nóv Xsó \½p¡v XpS§mw. a¡tfmSv IqSpXð CS]gIn AhcpsS {]iv\§fpw, ]cn`h§fpw Adnbm³ kabw Isï¯pI... \n§fpsS Xnc¡pIÄ Ignªp a¡sf {i²n¡m³ kabw Isï¯pt¼mtg¡pw AhÀ hgnsXänt]msbóncn¡mw... HmÀ¡pI Ft¸mgpw...

aebmfnse BZy \mbnIm ]n.sI. tdmkbpsS bYm PohnX IY

]n.sI tdmk½ Xncph\´]pc¯n\Sp¯p P\n¨ Hcp Iogmfkv{Xobmbncpóp. Im¡mcnÈn\mSI§fnð A`n\bn¨ncpó tdmkn¡pthïnIm¡mcnÈn \mSIkwL§Ä X½nð ]nSnhen \Sóncpót{X - B cwK¯v AhÀ \ñ IemImcnbmbn Adnbs¸«ncpóp FóÀ°w. {InkvXpaX¯nte¡p amdnb Hcp ]peb IpSpw_mwKambncpó AhÀ IÀjIs¯mgnemfnbpw IqSnbmbncpóp. XncphnXmwIqdnð BZyw \nÀ½n¨ Nn{Xamb hnKXIpamc\nse \mbnIbmhm³ \dp¡phoWXv Ccp]¯nbôpImcnbmb tdmk½¡mbncpóp. Nn{X¯nsâ \nÀ½mXmhpw kwhn[mbI\pamb sP.kn. Um\ntbð {InkvXpaXw kzoIcn¨ \mSmÀ kapZmbmwKambncpóp - kz¯pw sIm«mc¯nð kzm[o\hpapïmbncpó hyàn. GXphn[¯nð t\m¡nbmepw Aós¯ XncphnXmwIqdnse taemfòmÀ ssIhiwh¨ncpó PmXym[nImcs¯ shñphnfn¨ HcpZyaambncpóp hnKXIpamc³. 1928ð Xncph\´]pc¯ph¨v Cu kn\na BZyambn {]ZÀin¸n¡s¸«p. tdmknbpsS cq]w shÅn¯ncbnð sXfnªt¸msgms¡ kZÊv A{Iamkàamsbópw kn\namsIm«Ibv¡Is¯ apXð \in¸n¨pshópw Aós¯ ]{XhmÀ¯IÄ ]dbpóp. sP.kn. Um\ntbepw kn\naImWms\¯nb Nne am\yòmcpw s{]mPÎÀapdnbnð IbdnbmWs{X c£s¸«Xv. ]ntäZnhkwXsó kn\nam{]ZÀi\w \nÀ¯m³ kÀ¡mcp¯chn«p. ]t£, A{IanIÄ tdmknsb ]n³XpSÀópsImtïbncpóp. Um\ntbensâ {]tXyI At]£{]Imcw AhcpsS ho«n\papónð s]meokv ImhteÀs¸Sp¯n. FómenXpsImïpw Imcy§fhkm\n¨nñ. AhÀ XpSÀópw B{Ian¡s¸«p; HSphnð IemcwK¯p\nóv AhÀ¡p ]qÀ®ambpw hnShmt§ïnhóp. 1940Ifnsebpw 50Ifnsebpw CSXp]£\mSI§fnepw kn\naIfnepw \nch[n Iogmfkv{XoIYm]m{X§Ä AhXcn¸n¡s¸«psh¦nepw Hcp Iogmfkv{Xo B cwKt¯¡p {]thin¡m³ {ian¨t¸mÄ CXmbncpóp A\p`hw! Xncph\´]pcw ssX¡mSv Bip]{Xnbv¡p kao]ambncpóp tdmknbpsS hoSv. Ipjn\n¡c\bncpóp Aѳ. hnKXIpamc\nð A`n\bn¨Xns\¯pSÀóv tdmkn¡pw ho«pImÀ¡pw kaqlw {`ãv Iev]n¨t¸mÄ Ahsc hnhmlw Ign¡m³ t]mepw Bcpw X¿mdmbnñ. ]nSn¨p\nð¡m\mhmsX tdmkn Hcp ss{UhdpsS IqsS Xangv\m«nte¡v Hfnt¨mSn. hoSv hnäv ho«pImcpw Øew hn«p. ]nóoSv Ahsc¡pdn¨v BÀ¡pw Hcp hnhchpanñ. (2011 P\phcnbnð tdmknbpsSsXóv IcpXpó Nn{Xw A´cn¨ aebmf kn\nam Ncn{XImc\mb tNe§m«v tKm]meIrjvWsâ tiJc¯nð \nópw Isï¯n.) AXmWv t]mÌnð ImWpó t^mt«m ]n.sI.tdmknsb¸än Ipco¸pg {ioIpamÀ 2003ð cNn¨ \SnbpsS cm{Xn Fó IhnX. A{`¯neñ kz]v-\¯netñmSpóp I«nbncp«n³ lrZb¯nte¡hÄ FÅnt\msSm¸w Ipcp¯ ]n.sI.tdmkn apÅnepw tdmkmZe¯nepw hoWhÄ Ión¨e¨n{X \mbnI, cm{Xnbnð F§psamcm{ibanñmsX ]mbth c£n¨Xnñ btlmh hmgv¯s¸« kzÀKØÀ sXmïbneÀ_pZ¸päpambn anïmsX \nóp hnKXIpamcsâ NnÓadnª Ncn{Xalmap\n. F´mbncn¡mw kn\na¸pXpag sNóhÄ kqcyapä¯v aqSn¸pX¨h IymadsbsómcmÄ hmSn¯fÀsómóp\nðs¡óp asämcmÄ tImSnbpSp¯p Nncn¨psImï§s\ hmhmhw ]mSnbpw sIm¡c Iq«nbpw Rmdnsâ IuXpIwt]mð angn\o«nbpw ]qacw t]mse \nÈÐbmbv \nópw ImWnIfnñm¯ \mSIamsWóp `mh\sImïp hn¯n«p ]ncnªhÄ ]mSw \ndªpIhnbpw hnfhn\m- WohnXsbóp \n\bv¡msX tdmkn ]nsóbncp«nð XncÈoebnð Iïp anónadªpXpSn¡pó s]®ns\. Bcosbmcps¼«hÄ \Sn¡póhÄ BWnt\msSm¸and§n \S¸hÄ? Ip¸amS¯nsemSpt§ïhÄ Xoïn\nð¡póp apónð Al¦mccq]nWn BZyshÅn¯ncIodn taemfsâ [mÀãyw hn[n¨p, sImSpw]m]nbmWnhÄ thiy a\pkvarXn A«nadn¡pó Zqjyw sImfp¯ntbmÄ sImñpIo b£nsb X¼pcm¡òmÀ Fdnª Xos¡mÅnbmð sh´phogpóq IpanÄ¡pSnð DÅnse D¸pNnc«, ]g´pWn CuÌdn³ ]ntäógn¨ dn_¬, Nm´v, I¬ajn cm{XnsbmSp§n XangI¯nð ]\tbmebpw shbnepw kn\na]nSn¡psómcqcnð thcnñ, t]cnsñmSp§póp tdmkn {`m´meb¯nsâ \£{Xkm£n. .

kp\nX IrjvW F [ocbmb kv{Xosb Ipdnv, ( hoUntbm ImWqI)

(ssewKnI NqjW¯ncbmbn sXcphnsednbs¸Spó, hy`nNmcimeIfnð \cIn¡pó s]¬Ip«nIfpsS A`btI{µamb sslZcm_mZnse {]PzebpsS kmcYn kp\nX Irjv-W³. ]Xn\ômw hbÊnð PohnX¯nteä Hcp apdn¸mSnð \nóv- DuäwsImïv- {]Pze Pzen¸n¨ kp\nX Xsâ A\p`hw aämÀ¡pw DïmIcpXv-, Dïmbmð Xsó Ahcmcpw kaql¯nð Häs¸ScpsXó tXmótemsSbmWv- \nÀ`bhpw \nkzmÀ°hpamb {]hÀ¯\§Ä \S¯póXv-.) ]me¡mSv kztZinIfmb amXm]nXm¡Ä¡v _mw¥qcnð ]ndó kp\nXbpsS P\\hpw BZyIme{]hÀ¯\§fpw AhnsSbmbncpóp. ]cnØnXn imkv{X¯nð _ncpZhpw sskIym{Sn¡v tkmjyð hÀ¡nð Fw.kv.U_zyp _ncpZhpw IcØam¡nb At±lw kmaqly {]hÀ¯\¯nð XsóbmWv KthjW _ncpZsaSp¯Xv. {]ikvX Ne¨n{X {]hÀ¯I\mb cmtPjv S¨v dnhdmWv `À¯mhv. ]Xn\ômw hbÊnð F«pt]cmð Iq«_emÕwK¯n\v Ccbmb kp\nX, B kw`h¯nð XfcmsX hnZym`ymkw ]qÀ¯oIcn¡pIbpw. ssewKnI NqjW§Ä¡pw a\pjy¡S¯n\pw FXncmb t]mcm«§Ä¡pÅ {]tNmZ\am¡n AXns\ amäpIbpw sNbvXp C´ybnse {]apJ a\pjymhImi{]hÀ¯IbmWv kp\nX IrjvW³. a\pjy¡S¯n\pw ssewKnINqjW§Ä¡psaXnsc B{Ôm{]tZinse sslZcm_mZv tI{µambn {]hÀ¯n¡pó {]Pze Fó kó²kwLS\bpsS kmcYn. a\pjymhImi{]hÀ¯\ taJebnse anIhn\pÅ s]ÀUnä lp̬ cmPym´c AhmÀUv DÄs¸sSbpÅ ]pckvImc§Ä t\Snbn«pïv. B{Ô h\nXm I½oj³ AwKhpamWv kp\nX. 1996ð _mwKvfqcnð \Só temIkpµcn aÕc¯ns\Xncmb {]t£m`¯nð ]s¦Sp¯v Pbnðhmkw A\pjvTn¨mWv kp\nX s]mXpcwK¯v {i²n¡s¸«p XpS§nbXv. ]nóoSv sseKnI]oU\¯nsâbpw thiymhr¯nbpsSbpw CcIsf klmbn¡póXn\pw ]p\c[nhkn¸n¡póXn\pambpÅ {]hÀ¯\§fnð {i² tI{µoIcn¨p. CtXmsSm¸w am\knItcmKnIfpsS ]p\c[nhmkw, a\pjyhmWn`¯n\ncbmbhcpsS kwcw£Ww, thiymhr¯nbnð GÀs¸tSïnhóhcpsS Ip«nIfpsS kwc£Ww XpS§nb taJeIfnepw {]hÀ¯\w \S¯póp. C¯cw {]hÀ¯\§sf GtIm]n¸n¡póXn\v kp\nX {]Pze Fó kwLS\bv¡v cq]wsImSp¯p. thiymeb§fnð\nóv s]¬Ip«nIsf hnZym`ymkhpw tPmenbpw \ðIn c£s¸Sp¯póXns\m¸w AhcpsS Ip«nIsf ]p\c[nhkn¸n¡m³ '{]Öze' bv¡v 17 tI{µ§fpapïv. FbvUvkv _m[nXcmb A¿mbnct¯mfw Ip«nIfpsS hnZym`ymkw '{]Öze' GsäSp¯v \S¯póp. sslZcm_mZnse Nphó sXcphmbncpó salv_q_v In saÓvZnbnse IpSnsbmgn¸n¡s¸« thiymhr¯nbnteÀs¸«ncn¡póhcpsS ]p\c[nhmk¯n\mbn kp\nX Bcw`n¨ kwLS\bmWv {]Pze. 1997 s^{_phcnbnð sslZmcm_mZnse Ip{]kn² hy`nNmctI{µambncpó salv_q_v In saÓvZnbnð \Só IpSnsbmgn¸n¡emWv kp\nXbpsS PohnX¯nð hgn¯ncnhmbXv. salv_p_v In saÓvZnbnð ]Ww sImbvXncpó I¨hS¡mcpw CS\ne¡mcpw I¨hSw Ahkm\n¡póp Fóv Dd¸mbt¸mÄ aäp Xmhf§Ä Isï¯n. ]t£ s]¬hmWn`kwL§fpsS sIWnbnðs]«v \cIXpeyamb PohnXw \bn¨ncpó kv{XoIfpw Ip«nIfpw sImSnb ZpcnX§fnte¡v hens¨dnbs¸SpIbmbncpóp. ]eÀ¡pw PbnepIfnð arKob]oU\w A\p`hnt¡ïnhóp. Fñmhscbpw \nÀ_ÔnX FbvUvkv ]cntim[\bv¡v hnt[bcm¡n. CS¡v hn«b¡s¸«hcnð ]ecpw Pohs\mSp¡n. HcpZnhkw 400-Hmfw kv{XoIsf {S¡pIfnð Ip¯n\nd¨mWv Pbnente¡v sImïpt]mbXv. sXm«p ]nómse AhcpsS hoSpIÄ \m«pImÀ \in¸n¨p. hbÀ \ndsb `£Whpw tPmenbpw \ðImsaó hmKvZm\§fnð hnizkn¨v ho«nse CñmbvaIfnð\nóv \Kc¯nð F¯pIbpw HSphnð Nphó sXcphnte¡pw XpSÀóv XShdbnte¡pw hen¨ng¡s¸SpIbpw sNbvX kv{XoIfpsSbpw Ip«nIfpsSbpw thZ\ kp\nXbpsS DÅpe¨p. Chsc klmbn¡m³ Xocpam\n¨ kp\nX¡v CSp¡n Pnñbnse sXmSp]pg kztZinbmb anj³ {]hÀ¯I³ {_ZÀ tPmkv sh«n¡ð klmbw hmKvZm\w sNbvXp. salv_q_v In saÓvZnbnð Ahtijn¨ Hcp hy`nNmcime tI{µoIcn¨v AhnSps¯ kv{XnIfpsS ]n´pWtbmsS '{]Pze' Fó t]cnð Hcp {Sm³knj³ kvIqfn\v AhÀ XpS¡w Ipdn¨p. kw`h_lpeamb Hcp a\pjymhImi aptóä¯nsâ BZy NphSpsh¸mbncpóp AXv. Ime{Ia¯nð Ht«sd {]XnkÔnIsf AXnPohn¨v, NqjW¯ns\Xncmb thdn« t]mcm«§fneqsS hfÀó {]Pze Ct¸mÄ cmPys¯ Gähpw henb a\pjymhImi {]Øm\§fnsemómWv. s]¬Ip«nIÄ¡pw kv{XoIÄ¡psaXncmb NqjWw XSbpóXn\pÅ {]Xntcm[ \S]SnIÄ, s]¬hmWn`kwL§fpsSbpw aäpw ssIbneIs¸Spó Ip«nIfpsS tamN\w, {Iqcamb ]oU\§Ä¡pw F¨v.sF.hn. _m[bv¡pw CcbmbhcpsS ]p\c[nhmkw XpS§nb taJeIfnð cmPys¯ kó² kwLSIÄ¡pw kwØm\ kÀ¡mcpIÄ¡pt]mepw amXrIbmWv {]Pze. Poh³ ]Wbwh¨pw c£m{]hÀ¯\w \S¯póXmWv {]PzebpsS coXn. C§s\ tamNn¸n¡s¸Spóhsc ]p\c[nhkn¸n¡póXn\pw {]tXyI kwhn[m\w Hcp¡nbn«pïv. AhÀ¡v Aßhnizmkw ]IÀóv Pohn¯nte¡vXncnsI sImïphcpóp. Iq«_emÕwK¯n\ncbmb, FbvUvkv _m[nXcmb Ht«sd Ip«nIÄ \Kc{]m´¯nð {]Pze \S¯pó BØm\nhmkv Fó tI{µ¯nð im´PohnXw \bn¡póp. Chcnð A[nIhpw cïn\pw ]Xn\men\panSbnð {]mbapÅhcmWv. Bim\ntIX³ Fóp t]cn«ncn¡pó asämcp tI{µ¯nð FbvUvkv _m[nXcmb bphXnIÄ Idp¯ `qXImew adóv Pohn¡póp. sslZcm_mZv \Kc¯nse Aaqð ÌmfpIfnð ]eXpw \S¯póXv Bim\ntIX\nse At´hmknIfmsWóv AdnbmhpóhÀ hncfw. sXcphp thiyIfpsS a¡Ä¡mbn {]Pze \S¯pó hnhn[ kvIqfpIfnembn A¿mbnct¯mfw Ip«nIfpïv. Ip«nIÄs¡Xncmb ssewKnI NqjWhpw FbvUvkv tcmK_m[bpw hym]Iamb B{Ôm{]tZinð {]Pze krãn¨ XcwKw hfsc hepXmWv. a\pjy¡S¯v hncp² {]hÀ¯\§fnð B{Ôm kÀ¡mcnsâ t\mUð GP³knbmbncpó Cu kwLS\ F¨v.sF.hn. _m[nXcmb Ip«nIÄ ]mÀ¡pó Pphss\ð tlmapIfpsS {]hÀ¯\¯nepw klmbn¡póp. {]PzebpsS kó²{]hÀ¯Icnð `qcn`mKhpw NqjW¯n\p hnt[bcmbhcpw FbvUvkv tcmKnIfpsams¡bmWv. cmPy¯v BZyambn a\pjy¡S¯ns\Xnsc Hcp \bw cq]s¸Sp¯nbXpw {]PzebmWv. Cu \b¯n\v kwØm\ kÀ¡mcnsâ h\nXm hnIk\, inipt£a a{´mebw AwKoImcw \ðInbncpóp. 2006-ð {_ZÀ tPmkv acn¨Xn\p tijw kp\nX Hä¡mWv {]Pzesb \bn¡póXv. k³a\kvIcmb Ht«sd BfpIfpsS ]n´pWbpw kp\nX¡pïv. ]e h³InS s]¬hmWn`, a\pjy¡S¯v kwL§fpsSbpw I®nse IcSmb kp\nXs¡Xnsc ]eh«w B{IaW§fpïmbn. ASntbäv Hcp ImXnsâ tIÄhniàn ]qÀWambpw \ãambn. F¦nepw kp\nXbpw kl{]hÀ¯Icpw kPohambn aptóm«p t]mIpIbmWv. (kp\nX IrjvWsâ A\p`h§sf B[mcam¡n \nÀ½n¨ Fsâ...Fó Ne¨n{Xw cmtPjv S¨vdnhÀ IYbpw Xnc¡YbpsagpXn kwhn[m\w sNbvXv 2013-ð ]pd¯nd§n.) tI{µ kÀ¡mcnsâ 2002 AtimI s^temjn¸v DÄs¸sS \nch[n ]pckvImc§Ä kp\nX¡v e`n¨n«pïv. 2006-se s]ÀUnä lp̬ ]pckvImcamWv CXnð Gsd {it²bw. aqómw temIcmPy§fnð h\nXIfpsS AhImikwc£W¯n\pthïn {]hÀ¯n¡phÀ¡mbn bpssWäUv t\j³kvt\j³kv Atkmkntbj³ Hm^v Z \mjWð Iym¸näð Gcnb (bp.F³.F.F³.kn.F) GÀs¸Sp¯nbXmWv ]Xn\mbncw tUmfÀ k½m\¯pIbpÅ Cu ]pckvImcw. 2006 sabv 30-\v hmjnwKvSWnð \Só NS§nð kp\nX ]pckvImcw Gäphm§n. 2011-se C´ymhnj³ t]gvk¬ Hm^v Zn CbÀ ]pckvImc¯n\v kp\nX IrjvWs\ XncsªSp¯p. A´ÀtZiob kwLS\bmb lyqa³ knw^Wn ^utïjsâ 2013 se enhnwKv seP³Uv AhmÀUn\pw tUm: kp\nX IrjvW³ AÀlbmbn kp\nX IrjvW³-Hcp hoUntbm

Cu ApXnsd clkyw ]pdphncnpp, Adnbmh Adnbs

Ccp]Xmw \qämïnse Gähpw henb cm{ãob ]co£W¯n³sd \mbI³ Fóv hntijn¸n¡mhpó hvemUnanÀ Cñn¨v- Deymt\mhv AñInð se\n³ Fó XqenIm \ma¯nð Adnbs¸Spó djybpsS alm\mb hn¹hImcn acWaSªn«v 91-hÀjw Ignªncn¡póp. HIvtäm_À hn¹h¯neqsS temI¯v I½yqWnk¯n³sd hn¯pIÄ ]mInb se\nsâ `uXnIicocw tkmhnbäv bqWnb³ kwkvIcn¨n«nñ. ]Icw \nc´camb ]cnNcW¯neqsS Ct¸mfpw kq£n¡póp. se\nsâ arXtZlw acWaSª kabs¯ AtX cq]¯nð 91 hÀjw ]nón«n«pw \ne\nð¡póXv F§s\? Cu AÛpX¯nsâ clkyw ]pd¯phóncn¡póp amwk¯n\p ]Icw ¹mÌn¡pw aäp hkvXp¡fpw D]tbmKn¨p arXicocw ]p\À\nÀan¡pI Bbncpóp. ^wKkn³sd B{IaW¯nð \nóp c£ t\Sm³ apJw CS¡nsS »o¨v sNbvXv ]cnjvIcn¡pw. s]m«mknbw Aktääpw, ¥nktdmfpw D]tbmKn¨p cïv hÀjw IqSpt¼mÄ icocw apgph³ IgpIpIbmWv asämcp {]hÀ¯n. Htc kabw 200 Hmfw imkv{XÚcmWv se\nsâ icocw ip{iqjn¡póXn\mbpÅ {]hÀ¯\§fnð GÀs¸SpóXv. icocw Fw_mw sN¿m³ \nch[n imkv{XÚscbmWv djy³ `cWIqSw NpaXes¸Sp¯nbncpóXv. ]pXnb ]co£W§Ä \S¯n icocw tISphcmXncn¡m³ Gähpw \ñ amÀK§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡m\pÅ {ia§fpw \S¡póp. arXicocw \in¡mXncn¡m³ \nch[n ]²XnIfmWv djybnse imkv{XÚÀ hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv. X§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ imkv{XcoXnIÄ BtcmKy cwK¯v aäp Imcy§Ä¡pw D]tbmKn¡m³ Ignbpsaópw imkv{XÚÀ ]dbpóp. aptkmfnbw {Kq¸v FómWv se\nsâ icocw kq£n¡pó kwLw Adnbs¸SpóXv. X§fpsS ]gb t\Xmhnsâ arXicocw HcpXcn t]mepw tISphcmsX kq£n¡m³ \qdv iXam\w BßmÀYXtbmsSbmWv Cu imkv{XÚÀ {]hÀ¯n¡póXv. icoc¯nsâ BIrXnbpw \ndhpsams¡ AXpt]mse Xsó kq£n¡m³ Ct¸mfpw ChÀ¡v IgnbpóXv temI¯n\v henb AÛpXamWv. 1924emWv se\n³ acn¡póXv. Ìmensâ \nÀt±i{]ImcamWv X§fpsS sFXnlmknI t\Xmhnsâ arXtZlw Fw_mw sNbvXv kq£n¡m³ djy Xocpam\n¡póXv. (2012 apXð se\nsâ icocw kwkv-Icn¡m³ \o¡apïmbncpóp. Fómð djybnse apXnÀó ]ucòmcpsS hnImcw am\n¨v se\nsâ kwkv-Imc¯n\v {]knUâv ]pSn³ k½Xw aqfnbn«nñ.) alm\mb hn¹hImcnbpsS acWImcWw N{IhÀ¯n `cW¯nð \nópw djy³ P\Xsb tamNn]n¨p kX{´yw Fs´óv ImWn¨psImSp¯ [nctbm²mhn³sd acW ImcWw F´mbncpóp FóXns\ s¨mñnbpÅ XÀ¡w CXphsc sI«S§nbn«nñ. KthjImÀ ]dbpóXv C§s\ 1918 P\phcn 14 \v s]t{Sm{KmUnð h¨v At±l¯nsâ Imdn\p t\tc AÚmX\mb tXm¡p[mcn shSnbpXnÀ¯p. {^nävkv ¹msä³ Fó kplr¯v kwc£n¨Xn\mð A]IStað¡msX c£s¸«p. kmÀ N{IhÀ¯n h[n¡s¸« tijw HmKÌv 30 \v ^m\y Im¹m³ Fó hn¹hImcnbmb bphXn At±ls¯ shSnh¨p sImñm³ {iaw \S¯n. cïp shSnbpïIÄ Gän«pw se\n³ c£s¸«p. aqómas¯ shSntbäXv se\nt\msSm¸w \nóncpó kvXo¡mbncpóp. ]t£ Cu kw`h¯n\p tijw At±l¯n\v ]gb BtcmKy \nebnð XpScm\mbncpónñ. shSnsImï se\n³ Bip]{Xnbntebv¡v s]mhm³ hnk½Xn¨p. aäp sImebmfnIÄ AhnsS Im¯ncn¸pïmhpsaó `bómbncpóp AXv. At±lw NnInÕsbmópanñmsX Ign¨pIq«n. Cu kab¯v t_mÄsjhn¡v ]mÀ«n I½yqWnÌv ]mÀ«nbmbn amdnbncpóp. P\dð sk{I«dn Fóv kp{][m\ XkvXnIbnte¡vIv Ìmens\ \nban¨p. CXn\ptijamWv se\ns\ shSnbpï \o¡w sN¿m\mbn Bip]{Xnbnð {]thin¸n¨Xv. Fómð shSnbpï \o¡w sNbvX ikv{X{Inb hfsc amcIambncpóp. ]£mLmXapïShpIbpw At±l¯nsâ kwkmctijn \ãs¸«p, heXp hiw XfcpIbpw sNbvXp. Fómð kwkmctijn Ipd¨p \mÄ¡p tijw XncnsI In«n. Cu kabw Ìmensâ {]m[m\yw hÀ²n¨p. se\n\v ]mÀ«nbpsS \nb{´Ww \ãambn 1922- ev Ìmen\pw se\n\pw X½nð kzct¨À¨bnñm¯ kw`hhnImk§Ä Act§dn. Ìmen\v ]mÀ«nbpsS ]qÀ® \nb{´Ww ]nSns¨Sp¡pIbmWv Fóv a\Ênem¡nb se\n³ t{SmSvkvInbpsS klmbw A`yÀ°n¨p. ]t£ Ìmen³ cïp t]À¡psaXnsc Xncnªp. Unkw_À 15 \v At±l¯n\v cïmaXpw ]£mLmXapïmbn. Unkw_À 30 \v bqWnb³ Hm^v tkmhnbäv tkmjyenÌv dn¸»n¡v (bp.Fkv.Fkv.BÀ) Fó t]cnð ]pXnb cmPyw \nehnð hóp. Ìmen³ ]mÀ«nbptSbpw cmPy¯ntâbpw ]qÀ® \nb{´Ww GsäSp¯pIgnªncpóp. 1923 amÀ¨v aqón\v At±lw 'Ahkm\s¯ ]co£Ww ' Fó t]cnð ]mÀ«n t\Xm¡Ä¡v I¯pIÄ Ab¨p. amÀ¨v 9 \v aqómas¯ ]£mLmXw DïmhpIbpw kwkmctijn ]qÀ®ambpw \ãs¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. se\n³ ]qÀ®ambpw tcmK{KkvX\mbn¡gnªncpóp. 1924 P\phcn 21 \v At±lw A´cn-¨p.

Adnbmh Adnbs.........anntemv am[-h F agnbnse hnhIm-cnsb

tIcf¯nse tImgnt¡mSv, I®qÀ Fóo PnñIÄ¡nSbnð ØnXn sN¿pó tI{µ`cW{]tZiamb 17-!mw \qämïnð  {^ôp A[o\{]tZiambncpó a¿gn(aln)bnse lcnP³ {]Øm\¯nse  {]hÀ¯n¨ncpó hn¹hImcn.....? PÀa\nbnð lnävedpsS t\XrXz¯nð cq]wsImï \mkn{]Øm\¯ns\Xnsc s]mcpXn càkm£nXzw hcn¨.....? Hcp]s£ IaypWnÌv Ncn{X GSpIfnð IrXyambn tcJs¸Sp¯m³ adópt]mb...? apcpI³ I«mISbpsS càkm£n Fó IhnXbnepÅ hcnIÄ t]mse.....? "Ah\h\p thïnbñmsX A]cóp NpSpcàaqän - Ipew hn«p t]mb....?" "acW¯neqsS P\n¨h³ kvacWbnð Hcp -càXmcIamb ...?" càkm£n an¨ntem«v am[h³ Fó hn¹hImcnbpsS HmÀ½bv¡v- apónð Hcp ]nSn cà]pjv]§Ä. 1914 Ppsse 7 \v a¿gnbnse an¨ntem«v IpSpw_¯nð am[h³sdbpw s]cpt´mSn amXphn³sdbpw aqómas¯ aI\mbn P\n¨ an¨ntem«v am[h³ Ft¡mð Cetnrale et Cours Complémentaire Fó a¿gnbnse {^ôv kvIqfnð hnZymÀ°nbmbncpóp. kvIqÄ hnZymÀ°nbmbncnt¡ Xsó kmlknIamb {]Xntcm[§Ä am[h³sd ioeambncpóp .a¿gnbnð \nópw D]cn]T\¯n\mbn BZyw t]mïnt¨cnbnte¡pw (]pXpt¨cn) XpSÀóv {^m³knte¡pw t]mbn. t]mïnt¨cnbnð hnZymÀ°nbmbncns¡ lcnP³ {]Øm\¯nð {]hÀ¯n¨ncpó am[h³ ]mcoknð F¯nbt¸mÄ IayqWnÌv ]mÀ«nbnð AwKamhpIbpw skmÀt_m³ kÀÆIemimebnepw hnZymÀ°nbmbncn¡pó Ime¯v kÀÆIemimebnepw ]pd¯pw kPohamb cm{ãob {]hÀ¯I\mbncpóp . cïmw temIalmbp²Ime¯v ]mcoknð hnZymÀ°nbmbncpó am[h³ {^m³knse \mknhncp²{]Xntcm[¯nð kPohambn ]s¦Sp¯ncpóp. \mkn B{IaWs¯ A{Iaw sImïv t\cnSpI Fó \b¯n³sd `mKambn \S¯nb Hcp t_mw_v kvt^mS\¯nð ]¦mfnbmbncpóp FóXn³sd t]cnemWv  am[h³ AdÌpv sN¿s¸«Xv. cïv \mknIÄ sImñs¸SpIbpw ]s¯m¼Xpv t]À¡v ]cn¡p ]äpIbpw sNbvX Hcp t_mw_vkvt^mS\w ]mcoknse kn\nam Xnt¿ädnð \Sóp. CXn³sd  t]cnembncpóp AdÌpv.  1942 Ppsse 24 \mWpv AdÌpv sN¿s¸« am[h³ ]mcoknse sdmta³hnð tIm«bnse XS¦³ ]mfb¯nð F¯nbsXóv Pbnð tcJbnð ]dbpóp. \mkntcJIfnð F¨v.Fð.122 F¨v Fóv clkyt¸cpÅ XShdbmWnXv. 1942 k]vXw_À 21 \v Pbnenð \nóp ]pd¯psImïp t]mbXmbpw tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pïv. ]pd¯psImïpt]mb am[hs\bpw klXShpImscbpw ]mcokn³sd ]Snªmdp`mKs¯ htednb³ Ipón³ sNcnhnte¡mWv sImïpt]mbXv. AhnsSsh¨v Fñmhtcbpw h[n¡pIbmbncpóp. an¨ntem«v am[h³sd càkm£nXzw hfsc sshInbmWv \m«nepw ho«nepw AdnªXv. temIalmbp²Ime¯v Bibhn\nab_Ôw {]bmkIcambXn\mepw {^m³knð \mknXShdIfnð \S¡pó kw`h§sf¡pdn¨v Adnbm³ km²yañ FóXn\mepw am[h³ Pohn¨ncn¸pïmIpw FómWv IpSpw_mwK§Ä IcpXnbncpóXv. am[ht\msSm¸w XShdbnð Dïmbncpó ]n.Fkv. jtam^n³sd Ipdn¸v B[mcam¡n, ]nð¡me¯v {KÙImc\pw ]{X{]hÀ¯I\pamb kn.F¨v.KwKm[c³ cNn¨ a¿gn Fó ]pkvXI¯nepsSbmWv an¨ntem«n³sd càkm£nXzs¯ Ipdn¨pÅ hnhc§Ä temIadnbpóXv. "Ah\h\p thïnbñmsX A]cóp NpSpcàaqän- Ipew hn«p t]mbh³ càkm£n........ acW¯neqsS P\n¨h³ kvacWbnð Hcp - càXmcIw càkm£n..... sagpXncn \mfambv sh«w s]men¸n¨p - CcpÄ hgnbnð DuÀÖambv càkm£n.... {]Wbhpw ]q¡fpw i_ftaml§fpw - \ndapÅ I\hpapïmbncpsó¦nepw....... t\cnóp thïn \nXm´w HcmZÀi - thcnóp shÅhpw hfhpambqdntbm³...." càkm£n an¨ntem«v am[h³ Fó hn¹hImcnbpsS HmÀ½bv¡v- apónð Hcp ]nSn cà]pjv]§Ä AÀ¸n¨p sImïv.... {_n«ojv ]{X¯nepsS Adnbm¯hÀ Adnbs«........

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